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Soil Diy Project - Dry Density Test, Repose Angle Test, Sieve Analysis Test and Permeability Test

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This project was done with our own creativity without using any standard soil mechanics laboratory apparatus. In this project, we have carried out 4 tests (Dry Density Test, Repose Angle Test, Sieve Analysis Test and Permeability Test).

  • Dry Density Test

The dry density is the ratio of the mass of the dry soil to the volume the soil sample. While, bulk density is the ratio of mass of moist soil to the volume of the soil sample. Bulk density increases with compaction and tends to increase with depth. Sandy soils are more prone to high bulk density.

  • Repose Angle Test

For the repose angle it is the angle between the horizontal and maximum slope at which a given dry material is stable. For a granular material at its loosest state, angle of repose is equal to the angle of friction.

S. No

Shape and grading

ϕ (in degrees)


ϕ (in degrees)



Rounded, Uniform




Rounded, well graded




Angular, Uniform




Angular, well graded



       Table 1: Effect of angularity and grading on ϕ of cohesionless soil

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  • Sieve Analysis Test

The mechanical or sieve analysis is performed to determine the distribution of the coarser, larger-sized particles, and the hydrometer method is used to determine the distribution of the finer particles.

  • Permeability Test

Permeability or hydraulic conductivity refers to the ease with which water can flow through a soil. Generally, the coarser the soil grains, larger the voids and larger the permeability. Therefore, gravels are more permeable than silts.

There are several common methods to determine the permeability, such as constant head test and falling head test. The property of permeability is necessary for the calculation of seepage through earth dams or under sheet pile walls, the calculation of the seepage rate from waste storage facilities, and the calculation of the rate of settlement of clayey soil deposits.

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The purpose of this experiment is to identify the type of soil and the engineering and physical properties of the soil, the suitability of this type of granular soil as for drainage filters, and to determine the permeability or hydraulic conductivity of the soil without using any standard soil mechanics laboratory apparatus. The objective for every tests we have done are:

  • Dry Density Test

To determine the in-place density of soil, after the soil been dried.

  • Repose Angle Test

To identify the type of soil.

  • Sieve Analysis Test

To determine the percentage of different grain sizes contained within a soil.

  • Permeability Test

To determine coefficient of permeability of soil using Hazen (1930) equation.


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  1. Weighing Scale                                                             2. Sample Soil

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      3. Frying Pan                                                                        4. Jug  

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            5. Ruler                                                                       6. Water bottle        

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           7. Sieves


Dry density

  1. The initial weight of soil sample was obtained.
  2. The inner diameter and height of container were measured.
  3. The soil was added into the container until the soil did not tamp.
  4. The soil was dried by using frying pan for 5 minutes.
  5. The final weight of soil and container were measured.

Repose angle



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