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Motor Insurance Case Study

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December 2004


Chapter 1


Chapter 2

Merchandise insurance- cargo insurance

* introduction

* types

* object

* insured amount

* insurance premium

* liability,compensation

* risk coverage

* exclusions

Chapter 3

Carrier's liability insurance

* general presentation and provisions

* carrier liability insurance- CMR- Romania

* types

* object

* insured amount

* insurance premium

* liability

* risk coverage

* exclusions

Chapter 4

Vehicle insurance

* Car Insurance and the Road Traffic Act

* Compulsory Car Insurance in the United Kingdom

* motor insurance against damages and theft

* object of the insurance contract

* insured risk

* exclusions

* insured amount

Chapter 5

Third party liability insurance

* Third party liability insurance in Romania

* International third party liability insurance

* The Green Card System


Chapter 1


The need for motor insurance appeared short after the first cars were introduced at the end of the 19th century, although at that time the number of cars was quite limited as only few could afford it.

In fact, motor insurance appeared for the first time at the beginning of the 20th century being included in the category of the insurance for accidents. After 1850 road transportation started to develop, the number of cars increased, they also diversified, as a consequence motor insurance was no longer a type of insurance for accidents but became a new type of insurance as such.

Also the total amount of insurance premium in the case of motor insurance was already higher than the total amount of insurance premiums cashed in for all other type of accidents.

After the First World War road transportation developed due to the new stimulating trend in the economy and development of the car manufacturing industry. A consequence was the increase in the number of accidents. The lack of insurance made it impossible to cover up loses or compensate the victims of such events. Thus the motor insurance became also a social necessity.

At the beginning motor insurance included only protection for personal injury or other loses suffered by third parties, time brought new types of protection.

Motor insurance is not limited to the insurance of the vehicle, but also refers to the protection related to:

 merchandise insurance- cargo insurance;

 carrier's liability insurance;

 vehicle insurance;

 third party liability insurance.

ÑœChapter 2

Merchandise insurance- cargo insurance

The merchandise insurance or Inland marine insurance is generally purchased to insure specialty or unique properties, such as construction, medical and telecommunications equipment, computers, fine art, and cargo shipments. The cargo at stake does not have to travel across a body of water to obtain inland marine insurance. Its indemnification of loss to moving or moveable property and is an outgrowth of ocean marine insurance.

Historically, ocean marine insurance held the transporter responsible for property loss before, during, and after the completion of the voyage. In the 1800's, the non-ocean portion of the journey grew as cargoes were transferred to barge, etc., and the term "inland marine" was coined. Inland marine policies became known as "floaters" since the property to which coverage was originally extended was essentially "floating."

Inland Marine Insurance was developed in 1920 to cover property being transported over land, instrumentalities of transportation such as bridges, tunnels and property of a floating or mobile nature. In short, inland marine insurance provides coverage for loss exposures that cannot be conveniently or reasonably confined to a fixed location.

A bailee is any person or business that accepts the property of others for a specific purpose.

Instrumentalities of communication and transportation are properties essential to communication or transportation. Properties that may come under this class are radio and television equipment, bridges, roads, tunnels, pipelines, and piers.

There are many kinds



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