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Does Effective Classroom Management Prevent Discipline Problems?

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If strategies are implemented into the curriculum, whereby students are involved in meaningful learning, will discipline problems be prevented and controlled by teachers? Teachers prevent discipline problems from occurring by investing in good classroom management techniques, such as planning effective lessons to meet the needs and interests of the students, managing classroom time during instruction, creating a positive learning environment, and finally establishing rules and procedures for smooth operation within the classroom. (Effective classroom management has proven to be rewarding to the success of teachers and students. In contrast, poor management of classroom routines and procedures takes up valuable instruction time and encourages students to misbehave).


Student achievement would be contingent on the combined effects of teacher and student control: it would be highest when both teacher and student control is high, and would be lowest when both of them are low. Student adoption of self-regulated learning strategies would be linked to the effect of student control: they would be highest when student control is high and teacher control is low, and would be lowest when teacher control is high and student control is low.


Behavior- the way in which one conducts oneself.

Discipline- to train or develop by instructions, methods and exercise especially in self-control.

Review of Literature

The term classroom management has many different meanings. Long and Fory (1977) state: classroom management is all that teachers can do to help students obtain important skills; the goal is to always facilitate, and not merely to control or keep order (Lehman, 1982). Early research in classroom management has had a tremendous impact on the way teachers manage their classroom. During the 1960's and the 1970's, classroom management was the focus of three popular approaches, the Counseling Approach, the Behaviorists Approach, and the Teacher and Effectiveness Approach. The Counseling Approach focuses on discipline and what to do after the child misbehaved. The Behaviorists Approach deals with modification techniques in which teachers are taught to ignore inappropriate behavior. The Teacher and Effectiveness Approach focuses on how teachers prevented or contributed to students' misbehavior, not on what teachers did in response to a behavior (Jones and Jones, 1990).

Many theorists and their models help shape the foundation for classroom management today. Their theoretical contributions have particular relevance to contemporary classroom management. Most of the theorists did not directly address behaviors in school settings; rather they focused on other psychological aspects of human behavior. B. F. Skinner proposed that proper and immediate reinforcement strengthens the likelihood that appropriate behavior will be repeated. His research on operant conditioning, or behavior modification, had a profound influence on the field of classroom management. According to Skinner, positive rewards shape most learned human behavior. In other words, the behaving students will continue to demonstrate positive behavior. The misbehaving students, desiring the positive reinforcement, will begin to behave appropriately. Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg theories encompass group dynamics, self-control, the pleasure-pain principle, and understanding reality. Redl and Wattenburg stress that teachers should support students' self-control hoping that it will aid students in being responsible for their own conduct. Redl and Wattenburg feel that much the students' misbehavior stems from a temporary lapse of the students' control system and not from wanting to be disagreeable. The theory of pleasure-pain allows teachers to provide students will experiences that create pleasant and unpleasant feelings. By using this theory, the teacher hope that pleasant experiences will produce good feelings and motivate students to repeat a desirable behavior, where as unpleasant experiences will lead to unwanted behaviors. Redl and Wattenburg recommend that teachers encourage students to understand reality. For example, teachers can explain the connection between their conduct and its consequences, using encouragement or criticism, either privately or loud enough so that the entire class can hear. Using these theories help students to manage their own behavior. William Glasser focuses on helping people look to present conditions to find solutions to problems. Glasser's "quality school" and "choice theory" seem to have the most relevance for educators interested in classroom management. Glasser's theory of a "quality" school will help students satisfy their psychological needs and will add quality to their lives. According to Glasser, quality schools can have positive academic and behavior results. Glasser's choice theory is based upon the belief that we can only control our behavior. Since teachers cannot control students' behavior they can help satisfy the four psychological needs that drive students: the need to belong, the need for power, the need for freedom, and the need for fun. By satisfying the psychological needs, student will increase the chances of choosing appropriate behavior. Thomas Gordon provides teachers with ways to handle students' misbehavior through problem solving. Teachers can improve student behavior by send I-messages and actively listening. Gordon proposed a six-step problem solving process for resolving conflicts: 1) define the problem, 2) generate possible solutions, 3) evaluate the solution, 4) decide on the best solution, 5) determine how to implement the decision, and 6) assess how well the solution solved the problem. Gordon suggests that teachers send I-messages to solve behavior problems. When a teacher uses the word "you", it focuses the message only at the student. Instead, teachers should use an I-message to express how the teacher feels about the student's behavior. Gordon suggests that teacher should engage in "active listening". Actively listening helps the teacher to understand behavior problems while impelling students to identifying causes of misbehavior, accepting the responsibility for the problem, and determining a solution (Bucher and Manning, 2002). In 1971, Rudolf Dreikurs provided strategies for identifying causes of misbehavior. John Kounin discovers that effective teachers use many teaching methods that prevent disruptive behavior. In 1980, Kounin, Jere Brophy, and Carolyn Everton found that effective teachers were those who organize their classroom on the first day of school (Jones and



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