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Case Study

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CASES Quick Summary Outcome/Historical Significance CONSTITUTIONAL CONCEPTS/Enduring Issues

Marbury v. Madison(1803)*

Appointment of midnight justices by John Adams rejected by Jefferson. Supreme Court must decide constitutionality of Judiciary Act. John Marshall declares Judiciary Act unconstitutional The Supreme Court has the right of Judicial Review.

Impact of Marshall Court Judicial v. Executive and Congressional Power

Judicial Review/Separation of powers

Gideon v Wainwright (1963)*

Gideon was accused of a felony by Florida and did not have attorney representation because he could not afford one. Based on his "pauper" appeal to the Supreme Court, it decided that regardless of the crime, Gideon had the right to an attorney. Fifth, Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments vs 10th Amendment

Bill of Rights/Due Process/ Right to an attorney

Miranda v Arizona (1966)*

Ernesto Miranda was arrested, interrogated and confessed to rape without the police informing him of his right to remain silent or have an attorney after his arrest. One of the most important cases decided by the Supreme Court, it directed police to give "Miranda Warnings" immediately after a person is arrested. Fifth, Sixth and Fourteenth Amenmends vs Tenth Amendment

Bill of Rights/Due Process/Right against self-incrimination/Right to an attorney vs Police Power

Roe v Wade (1963)*

A Texas woman has an abortion violating Texas state law. Abortion at the time is legal in some states and illegal in others. A constitutional right to an abortion is established, though the court laid down a trimester criteria in determining whether states can impose restrictions Fourth amendment right to privacy, ninth amendment rights not listed in the Constitution and the Fourteenth Amendment vs the Tenth Amendment health reserved power of the states. The rights of women/contemporary social issues

Dred Scott v Sanford (1857)*

Dred Scott was a slave who was brought into free Territory as defined by the Missouri Compromise. The Supreme Court declared that slaves were property and as such were not protected by the Constitution. It also declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional Article III citizenship rights vs Fifth Amendment property rights.

Civil War causes/ Federalism/Equality/Rights of Ethnic Groups

Plessy v Ferguson (1896)*

The state of Louisiana enacted a law that required separate railway cars for blacks and whites. In 1892, Homer Adolph Plessy--who was seven-eighths Caucasian--took a seat in a "whites only" car of a Louisiana train. He refused to move to the car reserved for blacks and was arrested The Supreme Court ruled that the "separate but equal" provision of the Louisiana law was constitutional. The case established this principle of segregation until it was overturned in 1954. Fourteenth Amendment equal protection clause vs Louisiana's Tenth Amendment Reserved power right to legislate.

Equality/ Federalism/Jim Crow/

Brown v Board of Education Topeka Kansas (1954)*

Linda Brown denied enrollment in an all white school near her home challenges the separate but equal policy of the Topeka school district. In one of the most celebrated cases, the court struck down separate but equal and ordered integration in the nation's schools with "all deliberate speed." Fourteenth Amendment equal protection clause vs School's Tenth Amendment Reserve Power of education

Civil Rigths/rights of ethnic minorities

Debs v U.S.(1919)*

Debs, an avowed socialist gave a speech in which he urged people to work against the efforts of the United States during World War I. He was accused of violating the Espionage Act. The Court ruled that by obstructing the process in which people would be recruited or register for the armed forces, Debs did violate the act. First Amendment, free speech and assembly for Debs vs Congress' Article I ability to wage war.

World War I/Clear and Present Danger

Korematsu v U.S. (1944)*

During World War II, Presidential

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