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"it Was Inevitable That the Revolution of 1905 Would Fail." Discuss

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Although Russia was in desperate need of a revolution, the 1905 revolution ultimately failed. At the time, much of the Russian population was unhappy with the government and demanded reforms. On the other hand, Nicholas II believed reforms would undermine his autocratic power and would not allow them (at least not without a fight). Russia's people's discontent grew and grew from every level of society until 9th January when the revolution of 1905 began. Considering the people's huge discontent due to political, social and economic problems, it would seem inevitable that the necessary revolution would succeed. However, other factors need to be considered, such as Nicholas II as an autocrat and his reaction to the revolution.

Although there was discontent from all levels of society, one of the driving forces behind the revolution was the urban workers. They demanded reforms regarding the terrible conditions they worked under. Due to the fact they worked under the two-shift system, often two workers had to share the rights to a single bunk bed, and that's if they were lucky. Many slept next to their workbenches. They worked in overcrowded factories in unhygienic and uncomfortable conditions. The urban workers had to endure 12-hour working days and had no trade unions. They had no representation, but wanted 8 hours working days. The workers participated in riots, demonstrations and strikes hoping to get the reforms they wanted, but the Tsar would not allow them. Considering the Tsar was unwilling to grant the much needed reforms the urban workers desperately wanted, revolution seems necessary (and likely to succeed) based on this factor alone.

Like the urban workers, the rest of Russian society also demanded reform. The peasants demanded reform in relation to their poor living conditions. This is due to the problem of poverty among peasants. Even after they were emancipated in 1861, they still had to make redemption payments, keeping them financially crippled. The middle class were fed up with the control on the viewpoints they expressed, and the fact they had no say in the running of the country. They wanted freedom of speech and a constitution. The non-Russians also resented the government. They were strongly against their Russiafication policy as it didn't allow them speak their own language, let alone practice their own beliefs and traditions. It is this discontent from every level of society that suggests the revolution would be likely to succeed. Almost everybody in Russia was not happy with the government, yet the government seemed very reluctant to budge. The only solution, it seemed, was a revolution.

The main reason why the revolution of 1905 was destined to fail was the fact Nicholas II was a firm believer in Russia staying as an autocracy. As an autocrat, the Tsar had absolute power. He felt he had a divine right to rule Russia and unlimited control over the people of Russia. He made the law, and because of his pro-military attitude, enforced it harshly. He believed reforms would undermine him as an autocrat, so he would not allow it. His personal attributes give reason to believe that it was inevitable that the revolution of 1905 would fail, simply



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