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Types of Psychology

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Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive psychology is an area of psychology that focuses on the mental processes such as how humans remember, how they process information and store it within the mind. . There are many reasons for conducting cognitive research such as to find ways to improve memory, increase the ability to decide and, and work on learning skills. . Cognitive psychology was not recognized until the period between 1950 and 1970. Behaviorism was the main focus within the psychology world before the 1950’s. During this time frame much research was contributed to models and cognitive research methods. Cognitive psychology focuses on the internal mental states such as language, attention span, memory, problem solving, decision making, and judgment.


Behaviorism focuses on the observable behavior and the understanding of how various behaviors happen. It is a theory of learning centered around the idea that behavior is based on conditioning. There are two types of conditioning classical and operant. Classical conditioning is the process when a UCS (unconditioned stimulus) causes a UCK (unconditioned response) after a CS (conditioned stimulus) is combined with a UCS several times, the CS will then create a controlled response. Operant conditioning in the process in which reinforcement is applied to the subject. Both positive and negative reinforcements are used and are effective. Classical conditioning is a response that is not learned and happens automatically. One example of this conditioning would be feeling hungry after smelling cookies baking. Operant conditioning is a learning experience that is demonstrated when a reward or punishment is administered to the subject. Operant conditioning is used each and every day in the workplace and in classrooms all around the world. One example of this conditioning would be when children are talking in a classroom and the teacher gives the students a punish assignment to teach them excessive talking is not permitted in the classroom.


Humanistic psychology started as a reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Psychoanalysis concentrates on the unconscious motivations of humans. Behaviorism concentrates on conditioning its subjects. Neither one was concerned about the emotions and personal choice of their subjects. Humanistic psychology is a positive view of Human nature.



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