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Title Ix: Taking a Stand Against Sex Discrimination in Education and Athletics

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Title IX of the Education Amendments of 19721 has given women more opportunities in academics and athletics. Since it was passed in 1972, it shows how women can be just as successful as men and they both have equal opportunities. Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in all education programs. It has made a large impact on the lives of many Americans today, by allowing them to make decisions and choosing the school they would like to attend. It applies to almost everyone, whether you go to an elementary school, or a university or college.

Before Title IX, women were not admitted into certain colleges, such as the College of Arts and Sciences of the University of Virginia. Their state law prohibited women being accepted into their college, but after Title IX was passed they had to admit women into their university. Married women were also unable to attend colleges and universities. They refused to admit any married women into their school. These things changed after the law was passed in 1972, and has given women today more opportunities to be the best they can, despite being the gender they are or having a child.

Firstly, there is a difference in the education gap that exists between men and women completing certain amount of years in college. Before Title IX was passed, 18 percent of females completed four years of college after they graduated from high school, while 26 percent of males completed four years of college. Today, the majority of students in colleges and universities are women, eliminating the education gap. Title IX has allowed women to accomplish more goals and be more successful.

Before the law was passed, more females dropped out of school than males, because they could become pregnant and have a child. Now schools are not able to expel, suspend, or discriminate against any female if this is to happen. This has caused the dropout rate to decline 30 percent. However, the percent of teen mothers rose from less than 1 percent to 2.5 percent. During the 1980's to the 1990's the percent of females dropping out in grades ten to twelve went from ten percent to seven percent.

In the 1980's females were less likely to be in high math and science classes. Females were able to take algebra II, trigonometry, and calculus while males could take these and remedial mathematics. In science, females could take biology and chemistry classes, while males could also take these classes and physics. Now, colleges have more female students who major in mathematics and sciences. Before Title IX was passed, only 27 percent of the females were awarded degrees in math, and after in the 1990's 47 percent were able to obtain these degrees. The percent of females taking geometry in the year 1982 to 1992 went from 49 percent to 72 percent, the percent taking algebra II went from 36 percent to 58 percent, the percent taking trigonometry went from 11 percent to 21 percent, and the percent of females taking calculus went from 4 percent to 10 percent. In science, the percent of females taking biology went from 81 percent to 94 percent, chemistry went from 31 percent to 57 percent, and physics went from 9 percent to 21 percent.

Women are now more likely to earn degrees when graduating from college. In 1977, only 195 thousand women earned their associate's degree, 424 thousand earned their bachelor's degree, 149 thousand earned their master's degree, 8 thousand earned their doctoral, and 12 thousand earned their first-professional. The percents increased in 1992 when 296 thousand earned their associate's, 615 thousand earned their bachelor's, 191 thousand earned their master's, 15 thousand earned their doctoral, and 29 thousand earned their professional. Their degree's increased greatly in the fields of science, pharmacy, and business. One woman says "My personal experience has shown me that while the situation for women in science in the United States is by no means perfect, it is the best one in this world of ours."2

Title IX has also given more girls opportunities in athletics. In 1971, less than 295,000 girls were on varsity teams in American high schools, and were only seven percent of all students on varsity teams. Less than 30,000 females competed in sports and athletics before Title IX. Colleges only gave two percent of their overall athletic budgets to females, while the rest went to males. Title IX has changed the number of female athletes to nearly 3 million, which is about 42 percent of all varsity athletes in American high schools. Now, 43 percent of varsity college athletes are female.

In the past four years, male sports have received 58 percent of the money going into athletics, while females have only received 42 percent. Males also receive 36 percent more of the money than females in athletic scholarships. Instead of applying the Title IX regulations to all educational programs, they only applied them to colleges and universities that received federal funds. Title IX was not enforced because of this. Many females who participated in sports and athletics complained about this when their teams were being cut. This caused many lawsuits come about in the 1990's. These lawsuits resulted in a law protecting equal athletic opportunity despite what gender you are.

A popular lawsuit was the case with Brown University. Brown University reduced their gymnastics team from a varsity team to a club status in the spring of 1992. Nine members of the team charged the school with sex discrimination in athletics. Brown argued that ended the women's gymnastics and volleyball teams, along with the men's water polo and golf teams to eliminate a $1.6 million budget for the year. Brown insisted that they cut off the funds for the women's gymnastics and volleyball teams for financial purposes, which is why they also cut the funds for the men's teams. Although they reduced the men's water polo and golf teams, Arthur Bryant who represented the women at Brown University said that the school was



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