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Radio in India the Fm Revolution and Its Impact on Indian Listeners

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Research Methodology

This chapter intends to describe the process to be followed, to carry out the investigation. The present study was conducted during the 2013-15 period. In this chapter the research methods and techniques used for the study have been described under the following heads.

3.1 Locale of the study

3.2 Research Design

3.3 Selection of Sample

3.4 Statistical tools used for analysis of data

3.5 Sources of secondary information

Communication is an important ingredient of the management function which plays a vital role in the formation, growth and sustenance of any organisation. It is more so for self-help groups whose dependence on other stakeholders like government machinery, bankers and NGOs to attend criticality has been found in many research studies.

SGSY of GOI, targeting the economic and social upliftment of the rural poor in India, especially women, operational since 1999, underwent a review and was reintroduced as National Rural Livelihood Mission in 2011 with a number of major alterations. Use of better communication strategies and that of new media for skill development and to use information technology to solve banking and marketing related problems is part of this new strategy. Proper communication strategy to popularise and implement any scheme is essential. An appropriate feedback mechanism must be also in place to receive necessary information from the stakeholders to take corrective measures as and when necessary.  A large body of research work exists, which uses an after effect design methodology and also ex-post facto research design to study the empowerment of women on joining a Self-Help Group. The major finding in such studies is that, Self Help Groups have failed to reach brake even point primarily due to two factors.

  1. Lack of Credit from Banks and other micro finance institutions.
  2. Lack of proper marketing facilities of their products and services due to absence of sales promotion, marketing etc.

For both these problems to end, proper communication strategy can play a very important role. This research work intends to make a survey analysis at the grass root level and suggests ways and means to overcome these shortcomings.  

3.1. Locale of the Study

West Bengal is the 4th largest state of India, in terms of population and 14th in terms of size. It is historically one of the important states of India which has a large number of Self-Help Groups. This is primarily because of the success of the three tier panchatati raj system under the aegis of which such programs like SGSY are operated. West Bengal has 19 districts namely- Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Alipurduar, Cooch Behar, North Dinajpur, South Dinajpur, Malda, Murshidabad, Nadia, Purulia, Bankura, Burdwan, Howrah, East Medinipur, West Medinipur, South 24 Paraganas, North 24 Paraganas, Birbhum and Hoogly. Two districts Howrah and Nadia has been randomly selected. Two blocks Bally Jagacha and Shantipur have been selected from the districts of Howrah and Nadia respectively. This has been done keeping in view   the different kinds of geographical, socio economic conditions prevalent in the blocks and also the number of active Self Help Groups in the districts.

[pic 1] 
Fig 1. Map showcasing the Districts of West Bengal

3.1.1 Introduction to Howrah District

Howrah is the smallest in size of the 19 district of West Bengal is a story of contrast. The western part of the district is rural and agrarian in nature, on the other hand the eastern part is highly industrialised and has adequate connectivity via NH 2, NH6 and also via the river Hugli. It is reflected in the 2011 population census which shows 50% of its population resides in rural areas. There are 14 community development blocks/ panchyat samities and 157 gram panchayats. Howrah City which is much older than Kolkata, is linked to Kolkata  by the busiest bridge over the Ganges river the Rabindra Setu. The industries of Howrah are concentrated in Dasnagar, Liluah, Jogacha, and Andul over a mere 50 Sq. Km area of the total 1467 Sq. Km of the district. The Bally Jagacha community development block, which is peri urban in nature, has been selected for our study.

[pic 2]

Fig 2. Map of Howrah District showing Bally Jagacha Block

[pic 3]

3.1.2 Introduction to Nadia District   

The district of Nadia has it’s headquarter in Krishnanagar. Krishnanagar is 110 Km from Kolkata the state capital, and is well connected by road and railways. It has 17 community development blocks/ panhayat samities and 187 gram panchayats. The district of Nadia is characterised by Gangetic alluvium soil and rich in rice production. However proportion of land less labourer constitutes a very large proportion around 27% workforce and marginal farmer constitute around 8%. The Shantipur community development block has been selected for the study. Shantipur is internationally famous for being a textile cluster where a large portion of the population is engaged in the production of textile and related materials.


[pic 4]
Fig 3. Map of Nadia District showing Shantipur Block

[pic 5]

3.2 Research Design

The study is empirical in nature and involves collection of data from both primary and secondary sources. The primary source of data collection has been -

1.Field Survey : The field survey has been conducted on the basis of stratified sampling method with a view to accommodate different kind of geographical and socio economic clusters.

2.Focus Group Discussion :Focus Group interview offer means of obtaining in depth information on a given specific topic through a discussion group. The underline premise is that people who share common experiences, problems or concerns are willing to reveal them in a group setting. Here a setting is provided where participants are stimulated to talk with each other on the chosen topic under the guidance of  a moderator.

3.Depth Interview: Depth Interviews to collect information will be conducted from the concerned stakeholders which include i) Govt officials ii) People manning NGOs iii) Banking Staff iv) Community Service Providers.

3.3 Selection of Sample

Bally Jagacha block of Howrah District has got 8 Gram Panchayats (GP) namely -

  1. Durgapur Abhaynagar 1
  2. Durgapur Abhaynagar 2
  3. Nischinda
  4. Sapuipara Basukathi
  5. Bally
  6. Chakpara
  7. Jagadishpur
  8. Chamrail

These 8 Gram Panchayats have a total of 318 active Self Help Groups in 2014-15. From this, four Gram Panchayats namely Durgapur Abhaynagar 1, Durgapur Abhaynagar 2, Nischinda and Sapuipara Basukathi (50%) has been randomly selected. 20 Self Help Groups (5 Self Help Groups X 4 GPs = 20) having 232 members have been selected from the four gram panchayats named above. While selecting care was taken to see that the Self Help Groups are in existence for over 5  years and have reached break even point.



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