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Negative Reinforcement Contingency

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Negative reinforcement contingency is one in which the occurrence of a response produces the removal, termination, reduction, or postponement of a stimulus, which leads to an increase in the future occurrence of that response (Cooper, 2007). It can be a certain stimulus regularly an aversive stimulus. If this stimulus is separated after a specific behavior is displayed, the probability of that behavior occurring again in the future is improved because of avoiding the negative consequence. Negative reinforcement may not be understood of as a punishment procedure. To be considered a negative reinforcement, it is required four-term contingency specifications. They are:

a. The establishing operation (EO), is a condition of aversion that temporarily modifies or increases the efficacy of a reinforcer such as evens, some stimulus, or objects.

b. The Discriminative stimulus (SD), a stimulus that rises the likelihood of a response.

c. The response (R), it is the act that produces reinforcement (Cooper, 2007).

d. The Reinforcer (SR), it is the removal or termination of the event/occurrence that motivate or acts as establishing operation (EO).

There are my examples in my life as an adult:

Example 1:

a. The establishing operation (EO), I was cooking the dinner.

b. The Discriminative stimulus (SD), I got burned with the oven because I did not use appropriate oven mitts.

c. The response (R), I do not want to burn again

d. The Reinforcer (SR), I will use the right oven mitts.

Example 2:

a. The establishing operation (EO), the ski was dark and a windy afternoon

b. The Discriminative stimulus (SD), the rain came and I got water in all my clothes

c. The response (R), I do not like to be and feel wet again

d. The Reinforcer (SR), I always have an extra umbrella in my car.

An escape contingency is in which a response terminates (produce escape from) an ongoing stimulus (Cooper, 2007). The escape contingency can be an aversive stimulus is existing as an establishing



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