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Chief Joseph

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Howard ran the Nez Perece into the ground, finally up in Montana. Joseph surrendered his band at a place called Bear Paw Mountain some 40 miles from the Canadian Border, in October,1877.

Joseph fame did him little good. Although he had surrendered with the understanding that he would be allowed to return home, Joseph and his people were instead taken first to eastern Kansas and then to a reservation in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) where many of them died of epidemic diseases. Although he allowed to visit Washington, D.C., in 1879 to plead his case to U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes, it was not until 1885 that Joseph and the other refugees were returned to the Pacific Northwest. Even then, half, including Joseph, were taken to a non-Nez Perce' reservation in northern Washington, separates from the rest of their people in Idaho and their homeland in the Wallowa Valley.

Capuchin monk, who played a decisive role as the "eminence rise" (gray eminence), Richelieu's confidant and envoy in the cardinal's efforts to increase royal power in France and aboard.

Born in Paris on Nov. 4,1577, Francois Leclerc du Tremblay was the son of a royal judge. After brief military career, he underwent a religious conversation and joined the Capuchin order, taking the name Father Joseph. His missionary zeal , political astuteness, and tireless activity enable him to rise rapidly within the Capuchin order, and Father Joseph directed its energies to converting infidels aboard and the Protestant Huguenots in France.

He began his career as Richelieu's closest friend, adviser, and negotiator in 1612. Although he aided Richelieu in domestic affairs including military action against rebellious Huguenots Father Joseph's signal achievement was the successful implementation of Richelieu's anti-Habsburg foreign policy. During the Thirty Years' War, Father Joseph promoted Richelieu's strategy of keeping the Protestant king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus, in the field against the Catholic Habsburgs. But for the Father Joseph the most compelling project was a pan-European crusade against the Turks. When he died in Rueil on Dec. 18, 1638, however, the Christian states of Europe were still at war.

In his last years, Joseph spoke eloquently, against the injustice of United States policy toward his people and held out the hope that American's promise of freedom and equality might one



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