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Apush Notes on Civil War

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Apush notes: ch. 14

Civil War

  • Most costly American war , bloodiest war ( most American casualties, 750k)
  • Freed 4 million slaves   - accelerated industrialization and modernization

War begins

  • Lincoln: told S. He wouldn’t interfere w/slavery, but NO state had right to succeed from union
  • Fort Sumter
  • Harbor was cut from vital supplies from union
  • Lincoln sent provisions to fort, South Carolina had choice; permit or war
  • April 12 1861- war began. Fort captured by south
  • Fort Sumter crisis: 1). Called 75,000 to end issue 2). Authorized spending of war 3). Suspended writ of habeas (done by Lincoln executive power)
  • Secession of South
  • Pre-Sumter, 7 states had seceded, deep south
  • Post- Sumter, Virginia, N. Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas seceded, cap- Richmond
  • Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky (boarder states) stayed in union
  • Keeping boarder states= prim military+polit goal for Lincoln, loss would weak N
  •  Wartime Advantages


  • Confederacy: fight defensive war, moved troops short distance, long coastline, experienced military leaders
  • Union: 22 million pop., pop advantage rose; 800,00 immigrants, emancipation- 180,000 Af., loyal us Navy


  • Union dominated Econ, cont. banks and capital of country. N clerks and bookkeepers imp. for military operations
  • Confederate: cotton dependent, needed outside help to be successful


  • Union fought to preserve the union, strong cent. Gov.  
  • Confederates: believed in state rights but needed c. Gov to win against N
  • confed. Constitution model after reg constitution; 1 6 year press term, conger cant levy protect Tarif, prohibit slave trade. Confederate president= Jefferson Davis
  • Confederates wanted state power limits Davis power heavily (vp did)
  • Money short; tried loans, income tax, impressment of prim prop.

First years; 1861-1862

Battle of Bull Run

  • First major battle in bull run creek Manassas VA
  • General stonewall Jackson lead S. to victory (reinforced army w/solders), union had inexperienced solders, s. victorious
  •  General Winfield  Scott (Union) strat.; use navy to block S. Ports, take miss. river (div. confer. Into 2), raise and train 500,000 army to take Richmond
  • George B. McClellan, drew troops from training and invaded Va, retreated after 5 months and replaced by John Pope

Second battle of Bull Run

  • Robert E Lee strike N. Va by luring union troops into trap since Pope was new. Pope drew def. from Washington
  • Robert E Lee; wanted British support, attempted to invade Maryland, McClellan (back in power) knew plan dropped by confed. Solder
  • Battle of Antietam:  union army intercepted confed at Antietam creek Maryland, bloodiest 1 day combat 22,000 killed/wounded, Lee retreated to Va, Mc. removed
  • Lincoln used to announce plans 2 assault institution of slavery



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