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Ap Biology Outline for Behavior

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AP Biology Outline for Behavior

Territoriality - behavior of animals that enables individuals to occupy and dominate an area. Territory is an area where one or more individuals defend the area. Thus the two are interpedently interacting with each other to defend the area.

Dominance Hierarchies - social organizations in which some individuals of the group have adopted a subordinate status to others. The role of this in social behavior is that it shows that the subordinate individuals are depended upon by those who are dependent.

Courtship Behavior - Pattern of ritualized social behavior between potential mates. Commonly incorporates frozen postures, exaggerated yet simplified movements, and visual signals. The role of this in social behavior is that the female depends on the male to fertilize her so that she can reproduce.

Pheromones - hormone-like nearly odorless exocrine gland secretion. A signaling molecule between individuals of the same species that integrates social behavior. Ex: Volatile odor in the urine of certain male mice triggers and also enhances estrus in female mice. The selective advantage for this is that these nearly odorless gland secretions can make the prey taste bad or smell bad (sweat and urine); so you will not be killed.

Mimicry - close resemblance in form, behavior, or both between and another. Serves in deception,

as when an orchid mimics a female insect and attracts males, which pollinate it. Ex: The inedible butterfly is a model for an edible mimic, Dismorphia. The selective advantage for mimicry is that animals change to save themselves, whether it is camouflage or a change in behavior it still saves them.

Stereotyped Behavior (instinctive) - behavior performed without having been learned by experience. Ex: 2-3 week old infants tend to smile instinctively when an adult's face comes close to their own. The selective advantage for instinctive behavior is that instinctively, predators know when to go hunt for food.



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