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Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

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Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

Bacteria's are one-celled organisms that were discovered in 1676 by Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek. Many people like to define bacteria as a germ, but in reality germs are a form of bacteria. Most bacteria are not harmful to one's body but helpful in ways no one expects. (Lietz 6) For example bacteria located in soil that is used to grow food by turning dead animals and plants into the rich, dark topsoil. (Leitz 7) They also make shelter for humans and animals. Bacteria are removed from ones teeth and body after brushing and bathing daily. (Leitz 59) It is always completely surrounding everyone daily and no matter where you go it will always be with you at all times. (Leitz 10)

Dr. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928 and this penicillin was made of mold and killed many types of germs and was later tested on rabbits and resulted in no harm to the rabbit. The problem was that no one was able to make large quantities of it so it was not used very often. (Leitz 45) After ten years of consistent growing of the penicillin it was finally able to be used on a few dying patients. (Leitz 46-47) In late 1942 penicillin actually began to sell and save lives all over. This form of mold known as penicillin is a form of an antibiotic. Antibiotics are a bacteria fighter that made from mold and fungi. It is a drug that became very common and worked against many germs. (Leitz 49) Penicillin back in the 1940's cured many infections such as staphylococcus, pneumococcus and entercococcus, tuberculosis, syphilis, and gonorrhea. As time passed on there were many new antibiotics being made and taking care of new infections or diseases, so antibiotic-resistant bacteria was never suspected and would have been the last thought to scientist who were curing people every day. (Hickling 1) Since then till the present there have been many different antibiotics found and they are helping people fight bacteria everyday. There are different types of drugs/antibiotic's that help different types of diseases and bacteria's.

Infections of bacterial are becoming just as common as any other disease killing the population. This has become a major health threat to the population and will eventually become the biggest if something is not done about antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (Hickling 1) Antibiotic became available in the late 1940's and have since then became known as "the miracle drug." Bacteria have become immune to antibiotics over the years of continuous use. (Levy 1) According to Hickling daily life is a "Story of Survival of the Fittest" in terms that antibiotics only kill ninety-nine percent of germs and leave that one percent behind to meet up with and replicate with other germs, passing on that one percentage of resistance to the antibiotic. These resistances are genes that can be passed down genetically or is duplicated/strengthened by the existing resistant gene. Resistance traits ride on DNA loops, bacterial chromosomes, viruses, and plasmids from another bacteria. (Hickling 3) Antibiotic-resistant bacteria spread from one place to another such as international travel, transferring drug resistant tuberculosis from country to country. (Levy 5)

What is the cause of this resistance to the antibiotics? An overuse or overdose of antibiotics is the beginning and main contribution to this situation. In contrast to that people should stop and think about what bacteria does good for their bodies. Bacteria is always present everywhere including all body parts and are strong enough to fight off other bacteria such as pathogenic bacteria which can due more harm to one's body that these antibiotic-resistant bacteria's. (Levy 2) These bacteria's formed are so strong that there is not any last results for a cure. All of these overuses are a result from doctors, veterinarians, and farmers. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that out of one hundred fifty million patients in the outpatient care, one-third of those people were unnecessarily and inappropriately given medication that was not needed. Levy conducted a survey with physicians and eighty percent of them admitted to giving out prescription's that they did not feel work necessary but gave into the patience persistent wish. This is another contribution to the rising of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Farmers contribute to the resistance of antibiotics in such a way that there is no limit on agricultural antibiotic use. Bacteria used on animals and plants for a growing process are ending up harming humans who eat such food that is infected with Salmonella. (Hickling 2) Dr. Stuart Levy calls this outbreak, "an international public health nightmare" and says that the real reason for these bacteria's being antibiotic-resistant is due to "the widespread and inappropriate use of antibiotics." (Hickling 1) International travel from country to country is a factor to the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, resulting in the transfer of drug-resistant tuberculosis. (Levy 5) The death rates were once a high percentage and then at one point had declined, however now the rate and percentage has begun to increase due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (Levy 2)

There are a few alternatives that can be used to try and decrease the resistance such as farmers finding an inexpensive way to contribute to the growth of animals and trees and improvements in hygiene would help with the livestock. People should thoroughly wash their fruits and vegetables to rid of any bacteria and antibiotic residue, and prescriptions should always



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