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Aging Affects Japanese Auto Manufacturing Industry

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Aging affects Japanese auto manufacturing industry

Japanese auto companies face a problem: its factories in Japan could not recruit enough workers. Japanese young people boycott assembly line work. They believe that assembly line work tedious, fast-paced and boring. “They prefer working as janitors or security guides. Even young people who want to try to work in the automotive industry, 30 percent of them resign during the first year of their work. Labor shortage means a lot of overtime work; many employees work 12 hours a day plus Saturdays work” (Weathers, 2009). Not only employees do not like long working hours, management face the high cost and part time workers issue because of the long working hours.

What can their management company do? Whatever the solution proposed, they recognize that this is not a short-term problem. Japan's aging population. “One-third of the population is above 60 years old and 12.5 per cent are above 75. The working age population peaked in 1997 and by one measure is already 9.7 million people fewer than it was then.” (Armstrong, 2016) Moreover, car manufacturers are forced to reduce the average Japanese government working hours, and other industrialized countries in order to be more consistent.

First, analysis Japanese motor companies’ problem by using two-factor theory. “Traditional theory holds that the opposite of satisfaction is dissatisfied, according to two-factor theory, the opposite of satisfaction is not satisfied, dissatisfied with the opposite is not dissatisfied. Thus, Factors can be divided into two categories: hygiene factors and motivators, these two factors are independent and affect people in different ways to each other's work behavior.” (Ivancevich, 2013)

The hygiene factors are the factors that cause employee dissatisfaction, they can be reduced by improving employee dissatisfaction, but cannot make the worker satisfaction and inspire the enthusiasm of employees. They are mainly corporate policy, administration, payroll, labor protection, work supervision and treatment of various human relations. The motivation factors make employees satisfied. only motivation factors improve employee satisfaction and labor productivity. Factories in Japan to recruit enough workers. Young people in Japan boycott assembly line work. In order to change the status, we must use hygiene factors and motivation factors in the management.

Hygiene factors are reflected in the environment. Factories should improve their policy, technical supervision, salary, working conditions, relationships, titles, career stability and personal life stability. So that employees do not achieve from dissatisfied to not satisfied. Assembly line work tedious and boring. The work content cannot satisfy the workers. It led to staff turnover (even among those young people want to try to work in the automotive industry, there are 30% to resign in the first year). So factories should focus on the motivation aspects, such as the achievement, appreciation, challenging work, increased work responsibilities. Make the employee feels satisfied. If the use of Hygiene factors that make employees achieve "No job dissatisfaction", and the use of internal employees’ incentives to achieve "satisfactory". Factories already has considerable cohesion. The staff shortage problem has been resolved.

Worker's job performance depends on their ability and motivation, Hygiene is stable, motivation is the development. Rational use of two-factor theory capability will be able to inspire workers and material rewards workers.

Second, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory can also be used to solve the problem of factories. “Maslow human needs as a hierarchy of levels, from the lowest level of need to level to the most advanced needs of development. Maslow believed several major human needs in order of priority according to their importance as follows” (Ivancevich, 2013):

1. Physiological needs: self-sustaining human needs such as food, water, shelter, clothing and so on.

2. Security or safety needs: it is to avoid the threat of loss of personal risk and against occupation, property, food and shelter and the like.

3. Belongingness need: love, also known as the needs or the needs of society, people need to belong to something, and is recognized by others.

4. Esteem needs: it includes recognition and respect for their achievement or personal feeling of self-worth as well as others.

5. Self-actualization needs: This is a high level of need is the desire of the individual ability into full play, hoping to maximize a person's ability and potential to be successful. This is a pursuit of personal capacity limit.

Hierarchy of needs and two-factor theory there are similarities. Maslow's physiological needs, security needs, belongingness needs and other lower-level need the equivalent of two-factor theory of hygiene factors. Esteem need, self-actualization need and other more advanced needs the equivalent of two-factor theory the motivation factors. Human needs are hierarchical. For the factories, in addition to the need to continue to consolidate and improve the physiological needs, security needs, belongingness needs of these lower grade material needs. The management work harder to achieve self-actualization and spiritual needs of employees respected. Want long-lasting and efficient staff incentives, such as improved job content of employees, work redesign task, give praise, recognition, growth, development and promotion opportunities.

Third, the in-depth analyst of



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