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Ying Zheng First Emperor of China

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Qin Dinasty was one of seven Kingdoms which fought to reign over the Chinese empire around the 300BC. At this period, the king of the Zhou Dynasty was always the leader of the empire, but he could no more make no decision. The dynasty of Qin is one of the briefest but also one of the most important Chinese dynasties. Its administration indeed corresponds to the implementation of the imperial order and opens the way to the powerful dynasty of Han. Towards the end of Zhou Dynasty, in this period so-called period "Warring States", it became evident that the old ritual order had gone out of use. Some of the numerous feudal States lords adopted new methods of government. Placed on the West of the Chinese world, the State of Qin put into practice these methods in a systematic way. Before, explain in which way they changed China, I will describe the raise of the Qin Dynasty and then, I will express my point of view of this very particularly King.

First of all, Qin Dynasty comes from the province of Shaanxi in the West of China. Their state was founded in 9th century BC. Originally Qin was noble persons (of the low rank) which were responsible for the reproduction of the horses of the emperor. The administration of Qin was based on a very strict organization which was a little re-formed in court of the 4th century BC. The advantage of Qin is based on their huge dominant position. At the beginning they were obliged to defend themselves against the barbaric invasions on the West and having enslaved them, they were able to spread their Kingdom and their power. The army Qin was very good and was able to conquer more and more State hostile. In 249, last king Zhou was defeated. The conquest of all the States continued and in 221 BC China was unified. Feudal China with its multitude of small States was dissolved and was replaced by a Kingdom with a single emperor in the head.

Ying Zheng (260-210 BC), son of a Prince Zhuang Xiang of the Qin, reached the throne at the age of thirteen. He will self-proclaim emperor sixteen years later, having annexed the Kingdoms of Han, Wei, Yan, Zhao and Qi from 230 to 221 BC. Then, the sovereign created the dynasty of Qin, the first state unified, multiethnic and centralized in the history of China. Ying Zheng gave himself the title of Shi Huang Di (First Emperor) to pass on its power of generation in generation. He also replaced the ancient system of allegiance by an administrative division of the power in 36 prefectures divided into districts, managed by a centralized bureaucratic device and placed under the direct control of the emperor. This last one promulgated laws based on the ancient regulations of the kingdom of Qin and certain rules of six annexed realms. The abolition of hereditary aristocracies will allow appointing competent and serious governors. Preferring the agriculture to the business, the emperor encouraged the private property of lands. He gave the order, in 216 BC, to protect those who were held by the property owners and the farmers, provided that these pay the taxes.

The Confucianism was pushed aside for the benefit of the law which gives birth to a unique penal rule for all the activities and allows the enrichment of the State. Other schools of philosophy became an outlaw. Che Houang Ti burned the works which could promote an opposite culture in 216 BC, notably the "Book of the Odes" and the "Book of the History", as well as various philosophic works. The sovereign forbid private schools and buried alive in Xianyang, capital of Qin, four hundred men of letters and alchemists. The sovereign gave birth to the Great wall. The human and financial costs of the works were incredible.

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