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The French Tourism

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The French define tourism as "the art to satisfy the most diverse aspirations which invite man to move out of his daily universe." The Webster's dictionary defines tourism as "the guiding or managing of tourists; the promotion or encouragement of touring: the accommodation of tourists." Both definitions are apt for tourism. The private sector of tourism includes lodging, food, transportation, recreation facilities, attractions, travel agents, and tour operators. These in turn are supported by a variety of specialized services, such as research promotion and printing. In the public sector, promotion of tourism on behalf of the state or communities is a major activity. In addition, there is the infrastructure of travel and tourism-such as roads, bridges, and utilities-and the public investment, federal, state in land and a wide range of recreational amenities and facilities. Tourism consists primarily of travel for pleasure purposes. It does not normally involve a large measure of physical exertion, nor does it involve acquisition of new skills.

Tourism is oriented to the consumer rather than to the producer, and the economic impact of tourism comes primarily from multiple retail purchases by the tourists in a variety of establishments.

The average household spends more on tourism as its real income increase (The National Tourism Resources Review, 1976).

The City as a Tourist Resource

The City's appeal is based on eight general categories of attractions: Business opportunities, both work and personal; recreation; cultural/educational facilities; contact with people; amusement and entertainment; special events; shops; and atmosphere.

The pull of these attractions is in turn affected by five variables; reputation, cost overall quality of the urban environment (of which big-city problems, particularly crime, congestion and inconvenience are a part) locations and climate. The strength of a city' s appeal depends on a combination of some or all of these factors, measured against the allure of other cities or alternative destinations. The broader the range of attractions and the more positive the other variables in reinforcing them, the larger and more stable will be the scope of a city's tourist business. For instance, a City like Miami Beach which offers mainly recreational opportunities which depend on climate for their use appeals primarily to discretionary market, and that only at those times of the year when unfavorable weather elsewhere makes Florida desirable. Most visitors to Miami Beach come from the eastern half of the country; similar resorts on the West Coast compete successfully for the western market.

Much of a visitor's decision is based on his expectations of the city and whether or not it is likely to fulfill them. But how are those expectations formed?

Urban Attractions:

Most tourists' attractions are inherent to the city; they exist because of demands and support from local people, combined with the willingness of governmental and other organizations to subsidize certain amenities when necessary. The diversity and quantity of attractions relate closely to the makeup and size of resident population, the city's historic past, and its national and international standing. Most attractions are not geared specifically to the visitor, with some obvious exceptions. For example, the St. Louis Arch was built expressly as a unique tourist attraction, and at the same time it serves as a symbol of the city's historic past and present role as a gateway to the West.

Atlanta is one of the most successful cases of a nontourist city developing facilities to attract visitors. Concerned about the future of their city, Atlanta's decided about 15 years ago to take advantage of their location at the center of the fast developing southeastern region of the country. Through extensive redevelopment and aggressive promotion, they launched Atlanta as a business, communications and entertainment heart of the area, until now it has a reputation of a progressive, Dynamic City with lots to offer for everyone. Atlanta's recognize that tourism is a viable urban resource. Much of the redevelopment of the city was carried out with the tourism in mind. For example, the unusual Regency Hyatt Hotel was designed not just as a hotel, but as an attraction in and of itself. The Atlanta Underground was a historic but decaying section of the city that was rebuilt in large part to provide visitors with an attractive center for diverse day0and night time activities.

Atmosphere is also regarded as an attraction because a city with good atmosphere will draw tourists. Atmosphere is an intangible quality that relates to such characteristics as charm or quaintness, liveliness and excitement,



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