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Stroke

Essay by   •  December 16, 2010  •  Study Guide  •  4,260 Words (18 Pages)  •  1,511 Views

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OUTLINE

I. Introduction

II. What is a stroke?

A. Symptoms of a stroke

B. Factors leading to strokes

1. Medical conditions that increase your stroke risk

2. Controllable risk factors

3. Uncontrollable risk factors

III. Diagnose and treatment

A. How a stroke is diagnosed

. The status of stroke: Statistical information

B. Treatment steps

C. Preventing another stroke

IV. The effects of a stroke

V. Conclusion

I. INTRODUCTION

The brain controls our body movements, processes information from the outside world and allows us to communicate with others. A stroke occurs when part of the brain stops working because of problems with its blood supply. This leads to the classic symptoms of a stroke, such as a sudden weakness affecting the arm and leg on the same side of the body.

The brain is one of the most delicate parts of the body and, tragically, even a short time without a good blood supply can be disastrous. For example, although a finger or even a leg can be successfully saved after many hours without a blood supply, the brain is damaged within minutes. The symptoms of a stroke usually come on quickly and can be very severe.

II. What is a Stroke?

Hippocrates, the father of medicine, first recognized what a stroke over 2,400 years ago. At this time it was called ''apoplexy'', which means "struck down by violence" in Greek. This was due to the fact that a person developed sudden paralysis and change in well-being. Physicians had little knowledge of the anatomy and function of the brain, the cause of stroke, or how to treat it. (internet no 1-3-10)

It was not until the mid-1600s that Jacob Wepfer found that patients who died with apoplexy had bleeding in the brain. He also discovered that a blockage in one of the brain's blood vessels could cause apoplexy.

Medical science continued to study the cause, symptoms, and treatment of apoplexy and, finally, in 1928, apoplexy was divided into categories based on the cause of the blood vessel problem. This led to the terms stroke or "cerebral vascular accident (CVA)." Stroke is now often referred to as a "brain attack" to indicate the fact that it is caused by a lack of blood supply to the brain, very much like a "heart attack" is caused by a lack of blood supply to the heart. The term brain attack also conveys a more urgent call for immediate action and emergency treatment by the general public.

A stroke is a sudden interruption in the blood supply of the brain. Most strokes are caused by an sudden blockage of arteries leading to the brain. Other strokes are caused by bleeding into brain tissue when a blood vessel bursts.

There are several types of stroke, and each type has different causes. The three main types of stroke are listed below:

(internet no 6)

Ischemic StrokeThe most common type of stroke -- reporting for almost 80% of all strokes -- is caused by a clot or other blockage within an artery leading to the brain.

Intracerebral HemorrhageAn intracerebral hemorrhage is a type stroke caused by the sudden break of an artery within the brain. Blood is then released into the brain, compressing brain structures.

Subarachnoid HemorrhageA subarachnoid hemorrhage is also a type of stroke caused by the sudden break of an artery. A subarachnoid hemorrhage differs from an intracerebral hemorrhage in that the location of the break leads to blood filling the space surrounding the brain rather than inside of it.

A. Symptoms of a stroke

The most common sign of stroke is sudden weakness of the face, arm or leg, most often on one side of the body.

Other warning signs can include:

(internet no 7)

Sudden numbness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body

Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech

Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes

Sudden trouble walking, loss of balance or coordination

Sudden severe headache with no known cause

B. Factors leading to strokes (internet no 1-9-10)

I. Medical conditions that increase your stroke risk

Previous stroke or "mini-stroke" (transient ischemic attack, TIA)

Depending on the most likely cause of your stroke, your doctor may advise specific medication or consider surgery to remove fatty deposits in your carotid artery.

High blood pressure

Hypertension is one of the leading risks for heart disease and stroke. Your physician may advise dietary or lifestyle changes, or specific medications to lower your blood pressure.

Diabetes

High blood sugar can increase your risk, so you

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