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Immigrants come to the United States to look for work and to increase their finances. Similarities between old and new immigrants are that that are willing to accept the lowest paid jobs, their concentration in a few port cities, and settling in urban destinations. Differences are that the "old" immigration was overwhelmingly European and white, but the present inflow is, to a large extent, nonwhite and comes from 3rd world countries.

Nuclear Family: a family in which a married couple resides with their children. 88% of divorced parents children live with


The term refers to the increasing proportions of the poor who are women and children. This trend results from several factors, including the dramatic growth of female-headed households, a decline in the proportion of the poor who are elderly (not matched by the a decline in the poverty of women and children), and continuing wage inequality between women and men. The large # of poor women is associated w/a commensurate large # of poor children. 2001- 16% of children under 18 in US were poor: 9.5% non-Hispanic white children, 30% black children, 28% Hispanic children, & 11.5% Asian American children. More than one quarter of all families headed by women are poor. In recent yrs, wages for young workers have declined; since most unmarried mothers are quite young, there is a strong likelihood their children will be poor. Because of the divorce rate and generally little child support provided by men, women are also increasingly likely than men to live with children and to be financially responsible for them. However, women without children also suffer a high poverty rate, compounded in recent times by the fact that women now live longer than before and are less likely to be married than in previous periods.

A well known obstacle to even the most successful women has been dubbed the "Glass Ceiling". This term evokes the subtle yet decisive barrier to advancement that women find in the workplace; they can see the top, they may even get close, but there is an invisible barrier at which they cannot


Gender Socialization: the process by which men and women learn the expectations associated with their sex.

Gender differences in wages are explained by the Human Capital Theory, as the result of differences in the



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