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Several Research Questions on the Causes of Wwi

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World War One

 Account for the feelings of hostility towards the Austria-hungry Empire by Serb nationalists in 1914:

 Austria was what stood in the way of progress of the Serbian nation. Serbia was a direct threat to the survival of the multinational Austrian Empire and for that reason Austria felt it necessary to thwart Serbia's plans for growth and development. The Serbs desired more land, especially a coastline with an all important sea port, Austria denied them this by, in the peace treaty of 1912, creating a new country between Serbia and the coast, Albania. Austria also had Imperial control over several Slavic states, to which she denied national self-determination. The annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria in 1908, and the subsequent threat of war by the Empire had also been a major factor in creating the hostility between the two sides.

 Assess the extent to which Germany provoked the war of 1914:

 The Actions and policies of Germany before 1914 were largely provocative towards the other powers of Europe and thus a major factor in the build-up to war.

With the Accent of a new Kaiser, Kaiser William II to the throne and the retirement of Chancellor Bismarck Germany embarked on a series of aggressive reforms and developments to her foreign policies. Kaiser Bill himself was threatening to the other leaders. His proud, militarist and power-hungry features, caused him to be viewed in a questionable light and the policies he instigated for Germany caused the same reaction. Central to the foreign policies of Germany was Weltpolitik (world policy), which involved the move from a continental power to a world power through colonial and naval expansion.

Chancellor Bismarck had prevented Germany from threatening the other Empires by her foreign policies but it wasn't long before Germany's determination for a Ð''place in the sun' drew the attention of Britain and France. Her aggressive grabs for colonial acquisitions, her rapid naval expansion and increasing military strength were seen as, not only a direct threat to their own individual positions within Europe but as an attempt at world domination, particularly as Germany's international position was already strong. This created enormous tension that spread through all other nations and caused them to alter their own foreign policies and military status in answer to the threat from Germany. Thus Germany was largely responsible for the stress of the arms race and desperate desires for colonial expansion in the other powers, which created tension that largely, contributed to the outbreak of war in 1914

Germany too, was largely responsible for the creation of the alliance systems that meant any conflict would develop into an international crisis. She began with an alliance with Austria to support the other if attacked, which then spurned the creation of the alliances between France, Britain and Russia. In the opinion of the historian J. Lochlan this was a major contributing factor to the buildup of tension between the rival powers.

When this tension reached crisis point Germany was once again responsible for the direction the events took. Her assurance to Austria of a Ð''blank cheque' for support in the conflict with Serbia allowed Austria to act rashly in instigating war with the Serbs. Had Germany been more cautious in their support of Austria, Austria in turn would have acted more responsibly. Indirectly Germany had once again provoked the powers of Europe and driven them towards war

The final provocation from Germany towards the other powers was direct indeed. On the third of August, when Russia, Austria and Serbia were already at war, Germany invaded Belgium. The implications of this were enormous. Firstly it was a huge threat to both France and Britain, who, if it wasn't for Germany's action may have stayed clear of the squabble. Once in Belgium Germany had a clear path to both France and the English Channel. But what was worse was that Germany had, along with France and Britain, signed a treaty agreeing on Belgium's neutrality. By crossing the frontier Germany had violated that treaty and Britain and France had no option but to retaliate. Germany had caused the war to become an international crisis involving all major powers.

Although Germany's actions were a major provocative factor in the actions of the other major powers, which eventually led to war. They were not solely responsible for W.W.I. and it would be unfair to accuse them such. Both Britain and France were very much involved in the arms race and colonial race and added to the tensions these two races created. Austria too played a major role in the war's lead up by her activities in the Balkans. Blame for W.W.I. can not solely be placed in any one court but Germany's actions were certainly very provocative and therefore a major factor in determining the course of other powers in the years before 1914.

 Describe the differences between the social classes of Edwardian Britain:

 There were vast differences between the characteristics of life in the different social classes, which were mainly attributed to wealth although birth and social status were contributing factors. Firstly there was education. Working class children attended a board school until the age of about twelve, they learnt basic reading and writing and perhaps some numeracy but that was all. Middle and upper class boys attended Grammar or public schools and, after graduation either university or business school. Middle class girls often attended girls' boarding school where they learnt to be respectable, while upper class girls were educated by a governess and taught to be a lady. Both girls and boys of the working class entered the workforce at an early age. They worked in large factories for long hours at low pay. Often the work was dangerous and damaging to the health. Working class people didn't usually have a nutritious diet or healthy lifestyle and so were at risk of disease, which spread quickly in the crowed conditions, in which they lived and worked. Middle class boys meanwhile often went on to become the owners or directors of the factories in which the working class were employed. They were doctors and teachers and lawyers. The women married and they ran large suburban home, often with several servants. The middle class life was one of respectability and comfort. Members enjoyed a life of financial security and, although they did not live in luxury, they did not want for anything and were able to enjoy recreational activities such as seaside holidays in summer. The usual course for an upper class young



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