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Physical Transformation in Vernacular Structures Is Manifestation of Lifestyle Changes

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ANNEXURE 1

Doshi Kashmira,

Fourth Year B.Arch (2017-2018),

D Division, BNCA

Kashmiradoshi.

PHYSICAL TRANSFORMATION IN VERNACULAR STRUCTURES IS MANIFESTATION OF LIFESTYLE CHANGES: A CASE STUDY OF DIVEAGAR, RAIGAD DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA

Under the guidance of Prof. Smita Ogale

Faculty In-Charge : Prof. Ravi Patwardhan

Prof. Meera Shirolkar

PHYSICAL TRANSFORMATION IN VERNACULAR STRUCTURES IS MANIFESTATION OF LIFESTYLE CHANGES: A CASE STUDY OF DIVEAGAR, RAIGAD DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA

Doshi Kashmira

Dr. B.N.College of Architecture, Pune,India

E-mail- kashmiradoshi.bnca@gmail.com

Under the guidance of Prof. Smita Ogale

Faculty In-Charge : Prof. Ravi Patwardhan , Prof. Meera Shirolkar

Date- March 8, 2018

ABSTRACT

All over the world, in any part of the globe, from prehistoric period till the date, complex layers of social stratification and their cultural diversity are reflected in the urban form of the settlement. The cause of this influence lies in the unique and diverse socio-cultural roots, which represent nothing but the ‘Traditions’of that area. India is one of the parts of Asian continent where impact of these diverse socio-cultural patterns is reflected in housing texture. The primary aim of this research is to study and learn the impact of modernisation on the vernacular style of architecture in a region. Through the case example of vernacular structures in Diveagar, Raigad district, in Konkan region of Maharashtra, India, this paper highlights how the physical transformation and the settlement pattern of the area have been taking place due to the changes in the lifestyle of the locals, socio-cultural pattern, impact of the western culture, new generation, tourists and modernisation in the town. Today technological advancements control the magnitude and location of activities in space. The electronic revolution and modernisation of today is just adding to the vanishing local traditions which are strongly reflected in changing housing forms all over the world. The article also brings out the difference between the original and the modified structures and concludes by stating the discussions and reasons for modification.

KEYWORDS

vernacular; lifestyle changes; physical transformation; socio-cultural; modernisation.

1) INTRODUCTION

The word vernacular came from Latin word 'vernaculus' means domestic, native, indigenous. (Ganguly R., 2015). Vernacular architecture is the style of architecture which takes into account all the needs and requirements of the residents, nature, construction materials and also mirrors the tradition and culture. Though diverse from the popular outlook towards the built environment, use of indigenous materials, designing and construction techniques plays a pivotal role in design and architecture of the society. (Sarkar K., 2015). Vernacular architecture is a continuing dialogue between generations. It is the source of references in the social cultural and sustainable studies. Sometimes it includes ethnic influences of an important population; usually modest, unassuming, unpretentious, often a mixture of traditional and modern style , familiarity with local materials , regional climatic conditions and local building customs and techniques. The traditional bank of wisdom is our legacy today and aims to see how it can be taken forward in today’s climate change and building context. (Ganguly R., 2015).

Vernacular architecture is a manifestation, a physical representation of the culture of a people. It is composed of traditional buildings, which represent a morphological response to both environmental and climatic constraints, as well as to the socio-economic and cultural characteristics of societies. Besides, it is a cost-effective architecture, both in economic and social terms, self-sufficient as regards natural and knowledge resources and with a low environmental impact, and therefore, with a sustainable input. Durability and versatility are the important features of vernacular architecture (Rudofsky 1964). The basic goal in vernacular architecture is to produce easy and functional buildings. For this reason, it makes sense to choose the building materials in the nearest environment (Gür 2000).

The climates in India are divided into 5 climatic zones- hot and dry, warm and humid, composite, moderate and cold climate, and designing and planning of structures in each zones responds to the climate in that zone. This zone lies in western and central India, namely Jaisalmer, Jodhpur etc. This region is flat, sandy, and rocky and sparsely vegetated with cacti thorny bushes. Due to low humidity the climate is dry. During summers, winds blowing are very hot and sand storms are also common. Due to low water level and meagre vegetation, the houses are commonly made using twigs, mud, clay and stone. The warm and humid region covers the coastal region of India. Cities like Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata all lay in this region. The high humidity encourages abundant vegetation. The main criterion of designing in this region is to reduce heat gain and provide shading. The composite zone envelopes the entire central part of India. Allahabad, Kanpur and New Delhi are some of the cities that experience this type of climate. The moderate climate region experiences mild to warm summer and cool winters. The need for home heating in winters is greater than summer cooling. Few opening on external side other than doors are a must. Most of the time cooking and sleeping in rural India is done outdoors during the summers. The mountains of Great Diving range keep the winters cold and summers pleasantly warm. The cold climate is characterized as 2 classes: cold and sunny and cold and cloudy. Ladakh experiences cold and sunny type of climate. This region enjoys very little vegetation and is considered as a cold desert. The structures are innovative in design uses materials like stone, mud and clay. The houses are very close to each other. Cities like Kashmir, Sikkim, Shimla and upper

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