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Parkinsons Disease

Essay by   •  February 15, 2011  •  Essay  •  617 Words (3 Pages)  •  1,259 Views

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Parkinson's disease is a chronic disease of the central nervous system caused by lowered levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter dopamine. Parkinson's disease targets a specific area of the human brain that is a collection of nerve cells, the substantia nigra. The damage to these functional units of the nervous system affects a circuit of nerve cells in the brain called the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia is the part of the brain that controls balance and movement in the body. Parkinson's disease causes brain cells in the basal ganglia to die gradually, thereby causing movement disorders and postural imbalance

Parkinson's disease develops when certain nerve cells (neurons) in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra are damaged or destroyed. Normally, these nerve cells release dopamine -- a chemical that transmits signals between the substantia nigra and another part of the brain, the corpus striatum. (Structures located in the middle of the brain, which form the striatum, input station of the basal ganglia system.) Dopamine affects brain processes that control movement, emotional response, and ability to experience pleasure and pain. The main symptoms of Parkinson's are due to a deficiency in the production of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

When dopamine producing cells in the substantia nigra fail, the striatum becomes deficient in dopamine. This causes other parts of the basal ganglia to become unregulated, resulting in problems of physical control. Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease may include loss of automatic movements, impaired speech/balance, rigid muscles and tremors. All unconscious acts that are a normal part of being human, such as blinking and swinging your arm when you walk tend to be weakened or even lost. People suffering from Parkinson have unstable posture, some trouble speaking, and their voices often become monotonous and very soft. Parkinson patients develop tremors, involuntary shaking of the body or limbs.

The function of the nervous tissue is in communication between parts of the body. It is complied of neurons, which transmit impulses, and the neuroglia, which assist broadcast of the nerve impulse. The main symptoms of Parkinson's are due to a deficiency in the production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine provides signals to parts of the brain responsible for executing motor sequence. Due to the shortage of dopamine motor functions are limited. Opposed to healthy individuals



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