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Motivation is still the one thing that makes people productive in their jobs. It is necessary for a manager to motivate staff since unmotivated employees could cost you your business. More concretely, when workers are not inspired, you are apt to see complacency, declining morale and discouragement, reduction in productivity, increased absenteeism which will eventually result in an organisation losing potential employees.

Employees need that something extra, however small to feed their esteem and self-worth, so they can get up tomorrow and do the job in hand with enthusiasm and confidence. Motivated employees embrace corporate goals and objectives, enhance performance and increase productivity.

This paper attempts to use the Content and Process theories of motivation to implement policies and procedures to increase employee motivation and productivity in the workplace.


Motivation is the force that makes us do things: this is a result of our individual needs being satisfied (or met) so that we have inspiration to complete the task. These needs vary from person to person as everybody has their individual needs to motivate themselves. Depending on how motivated we are, it may further determine the effort we put into our work and therefore increase the standard of the output.


Motivation can have an effect on the output of a business and concerns both quantity and quality. For example, in the grocery business, customers expect a certain level of friendliness and service from employees for a pleasant shopping experience. Unmotivated employees who do not follow store service procedures can contribute to an unsatisfactory trip to the grocery store. This leads to disgruntled customers who may choose to shop elsewhere. The number of scenarios is extreme but you get the general picture.

The objective of motivating employees is to lead them to perform in ways that meet the goals of the department and the organisation as a whole. Motivating can increase job satisfaction. Giving employees things such as a sense of recognition, responsibility, or achievement can bring satisfaction about. Factors that affect work motivation include individual differences, job characteristics, and organizational practices.


Motivational theories are studied and practiced by theorist and companies to increase productivity. The two types of motivational theories are content and process. The content theories are concerned with identifying the specific internal needs that motivate employees. Content theories include Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Alderfer's ERG, McClelland's Needs and Herzberg's Two-factor theories. The process theories are design to describe and analyse how personal factors interact to influence each other to produce certain kinds of behaviour. These include Equity, Expectancy and Goal Setting theories of motivation.


5.1 Pay

According to Maslow, Herzberg and Alderfer ERG needs theories, employees have basic needs such as food, shelter, water which must be satisfied in order to generate motivation. By giving employees a pay cheque they will be able to satisfy their most basic needs. When this level need is satisfied, employees move to next level. It should be noted that employees have different needs and they should all be treated differently. This disadvantage of this theory is that one need must be satisfied before moving on to another level this can affect productivity and motivation in other tasks.

5.2 Working Conditions, Safety and Security

According to Herzberg and Alderfer, good working conditions can contribute to job satisfaction but if absent would lead to dissatisfaction. To prevent this, working conditions should be at an approved standard to maintain employee satisfaction. Ensure that employees are comfortable and there are adequate tools and support available for them. For example, upgrade to computerized cashing machines that are fast and reliable enough to minimise down time and reduce employee and customer frustration.

Employees need to know that support is readily available to help them when they have questions or encounter problems. Remember that the customer is always right. Having this kind of help is essential for employee morale.


6.1 Benefit Programs

Employees' safety/security needs as outline by Maslow and ERG's existence needs can be satisfied by providing benefits to meet employees' personal needs. Benefit programs includes, medical, vacation, savings plan, pension, life insurance and tuition reimbursement for further study. Also staff can enjoy a 3% discount on all grocery purchases.

According to McClelland's affiliation need, Alderfer's relatedness needs and Hertzberg hygiene factor and Maslow's social needs, employees are motivated knowing that they have a sense of belonging and liked by others. The use of "we" and "us" when speaking of the organisation will make employees feel a part of the organisation, thus improving the productivity of employees. The introduction of sports teams, parties, and celebrations allow employees to interact with each other and with management. The advantage here is that some employees value relationships over accomplishments and friendship over power.


Some managers assume that the main thing employees want out of a job is money. Based on the content theories of motivation, it makes sense to say that money motivates people when it meets their needs. On the other hand, if an individual is financially comfortable, non-financial rewards such as a sense of accomplishment are increasingly important. Some financial incentives are payments for meeting or exceeding objectives. Suggestion programs where employees are paid for suggestions for improvements. Typically, employees will receive payment for a suggestion that must be adopted or save some minimum cost to company. Another incentive that can be adopted is group incentive plans. This group incentive plan pays a bonus



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