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Models and Theories of Change Review

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Master's Project in Change Management

Models and Theories of Change Review

By: Carl V. Gibson

Organizational Leadership and Change Management LDR/515

Mentor: Mr. Bruce W. Webb

University of Phoenix

Date: May 21, 2007

In the process of using models and theories of change review I have identify five different models or theories of change. Discuss the validity and utility of these models. Therefore in the development of my project I have come up with three models and two theories which will help me develop my project. The American Airlines project will use them because they are most valid to the development of the project and fit in. The process consultation model lets the client's involvement can help to break down potential resistance and resentment to proposed solutions that may occur if the consultant worked independently. It can also help the client to learn problem solving processes for future use. So with the doctor patient model, the client knows that something is wrong but is not sure what it is or how to fix it. Therefore, the consultant is brought in both to make a diagnosis and to provide a prescription for a solution to the problem once it is identified. As with the purchase-of-expertise model, the doctor patient model has several key assumptions that need to be met for it to be effective.

The project will need the models for the areas of market strategy, consultation, and problem solving with decision making. They are as follows:

* Purchase of expertise model: In the "purchase of expertise model," a leader or group identifies a need for information or expertise that the organization cannot supply. The leader hires a consultant to obtain the information and make a report, often including recommendations for action. Examples would be surveying consumers or employees about some matter, finding out how best to organize the company after a merger, or developing a marketing strategy for a new product. This is a typical consulting approach that is widely used. I find them very valid in the usage of my project since I will be developing a market strategy for both of my projects the SkyMall and In Flight Meals Program.

* Doctor patient model: In the doctor-patient model, a leader or group detects symptoms of ill health in some part of the organization, and calls in a consultant who diagnoses the situation, identifies the causes of problems and then, like a physician, prescribes a cure. Examples would be calling in "the doctor" to examine (1) low morale at a particular plant, (2) being over budget and behind schedule on a major project, or (3) a high performing manager who suddenly becomes a low-performer. This too is a well known, traditional approach to consultation.

* Process consultation Model: In the process consultation model, the consultant works with the leader and group to diagnose strengths and weaknesses, identify problems and opportunities, and develop action plans and methods for reaching desired goals. In this model the consultant assists the client organization in becoming more effective at examining and improving its own processes of problem solving, decision making, and action taking. This third model, typical in OD, encourages greater collaboration between clients and consultant, engages the resources and talents of the clients, and strengthens clients' abilities to improve their work processes. Examples would include working on any of the previously mentioned problems, but using a collaborative, participative, you-can-figure-out-the-right-answers-yourselves approach. An organization development consultant typically suggests general processes and procedures for addressing problems and issues. "The consultant helps the clients generate valid data and learn from the data. The OD consultant is an expert on process how to "go about" effective problem solving and decision making." (Wood Digest, 2006)

* Change Theories: By using the change theories the process, plans, change management and business development tips. By applying these simple principles. Achieving personal change will be more successful too if you use the same approach where relevant. Change management entails thoughtful planning and sensitive implementation, and above all, consultation with, and involvement of, the people affected by the changes. If you force change on people normally problems arise. Change must be realistic, achievable and measurable. These aspects are especially relevant to managing personal change.

* Traditional Leadership Theory: Is concerned with top down leadership in large organizations. Information comes from upper management down to the workers. "Three important leadership traits in virtual team context are discussed: communication competency, environmental alertness, and influence power. This paper calls for a hybrid approach in virtual team leadership research. The implications of the four virtual team contingencies on these leadership traits are presented and research propositions are raised." (International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 2006) Traditional leadership theory usually focuses on styles of leadership, whether autocratic, persuasive, participative, or declarative. Other theories push a situational leadership depending on the situation at hand and the responses of the led. If the traditional leadership theory is used then it will be business as usual for this reason the change theory is better suited for the American Airlines Project.

The human implications of this project have come to the idea that it will take major organizational change and focusing on the implementation of the new technology of the SkyMall and In Flight Meals program for American Airlines. The following factors will identify the success factors needed for the organizational change to be accomplished with the American Airlines project.

Achieving organizational change that produces results is not just a managerial challenge; it is a cognitive challenge, too. Managers, like people generally, find it difficult to think about dynamic events like feedback loops and time delays. It is easier to pay attention to immediate effects and visible changes. The outcome is a focus on the short-term and local not the longer-term and global results from change, a problem that organizational incentives amplify. Thus, local improvements in cost reduction or efficiency are assumed to benefit the firm as whole, while little attention is given to actually



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