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Middle Ages - Human History

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The history of the modern world derives from thousands of years of human history. Embedded in its history are the many eras of man which have constructed our modern learning, art, beliefs, and order. The middle ages, although represented as "dark", backwards, and idle, were in fact a bridge linking the classical and modern world. Medieval society may not have been in a sense glorious, but the era of itself was a prime foundation of the modern world's newfound stability, a revival of the law and teachings from the classical era, a reinvestment and reform in the church, and a precursor to the golden age of art.

The government of the middle ages, as convoluted and variable as it was, ended up giving way to a powerful revival of monarchial control. The feudal age had erupted due to the monarchs inability to rule and defend holistically it's country during Norse and foreign invasions in the 700's to 1000's AD. The emphasis shifted instead to local lords and nobles who drew the king's power for greater local stability. This system flourished under an influenced and uneducated nation, however, the rise of the middle and working classes put a change to that. Skilled merchants began to form guilds, universities and learning groups educated citizens, and a strengthening economy led the middle classes to object to feudal lord's taxes and form their own charters of towns. The educated middle class was now able to run their town fairly efficiently, which in turn, decreased influence of feudal lords and revived the power and influence of the monarchy. The king could now depend on his educated townspeople to run their town. AS revolutionary as the transition was to the feudal system, the practice proved to be efficient in the modern world.

The influence of universities and merchants, as seen, changed the kingdom. Medieval universities were first formed in the 12th century AD after a need for educated public officials became evident. Schools like the Law School at Bologna as well as medical schools gave towns lawyers, judges and capable local officials. Other schools like the University of Paris taught scholars literature and theology. The breed of Renaissance thinking was most likely developed in such places. Scholars like Peter Abelard and Thomas Aquinas led an interest in the study of classical Greek and Roman philosophy. This interest, along with challenged perspectives of the time eventually led to modern science. Guilds, as afore-mentioned, were monopolistic practices over certain trades set by merchants. They virtually eliminated competition and ensured quality. Compared to Renaissance art, and Shakespearean and Elizabethan literature



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