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Metallic Implant Materials

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BIOMATERIALS - METALLIC IMPLANT MATERIALS

BY:

G.V.CHAKRAVARTHY

B.TECH FINAL YEAR

ROLL NO. 03501

DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(DEEMED UNIVERSITY)

WARANGAL ,ANDHRA PRADESH

BIO MATERIALS - METALLIC IMPLANT MATERIALS

INTRODUCTION

In surgery, a biocompatible material (sometimes shortened to biomaterial) is a synthetic material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. The CLEMSON UNIVERSITY ADVISORY BOARD for BIOMATERIALS has formally defined a biomaterial to be "a systematically and pharmacologically inert substance designed for implantation within or incorporation with living systems." By contrast a biological material is a material such as bone matrix or tooth enamel, produced by a biological system.

The use of biomaterials, as indicated in Table 1, include replacement of a body part that has lost function due to disease or trauma, to assist in healing, to improve function, and to correct abnormalities.

Table 1 Uses of Biomaterials

Problem area Examples

Replacement of diseased or damaged part

Assist in healing

Improve function

Correct functional abnormality

Correct cosmetic problem

Aid to diagnosis

Aid to treatment

Artificial hip joint, kidney dialysis machine

Sutures, bone plates and screws

Cardiac pacemaker, contact lens

Harrington spinal rod

Augmentation mammoplasty, chin augmentation

Probes and catheters

Catheters, drains

Biomaterials can be classified from the point of view of the problem area that is to be solved (Table 1), the body on a tissue level, an organ level (Table 2), or a system level (Table 3). Also classified as metals, polymers, ceramics and composites (Table 4).

Table 2 Biomaterials in Organs

Organ Examples

Heart

Lung

Eye

Ear

Bone

Kidney

Bladder

Cardiac pacemaker, artificial heart valve

Oxygenator machine

Contact lens, eye lens replacement

Artificial stapes, cosmetic reconstruction of outer ear

Bone plate

Kidney dialysis machine

Catheter

Table 3 Biomaterials in Body Systems

System Examples

Skeletal

Muscular

Digestive

Circulatory

Respiratory

Integumentary

Urinary

Nervous

Endocrine

Reproductive

Bone plate, total joint replacements

Sutures

Sutures

Artificial heart valves, blood vessels

Oxygenator machine

Sutures, burn dressings, artificial skin

Catheters, kidney dialysis machine

Hydrocephalus drain, cardiac pacemaker

Microencapsulated pancreatic islet cells

Augmentation mammoplasty, other cosmetic replacements

Table 4 Materials for use in body

Materials Advantages Disadvantages Examples

Polymers

Nylon

Silicones

Teflon

Dacron

Metals

Titanium

Stainless steel

Co-Cr alloys

Gold

Ceramics

Aluminum oxide

Carbon

Hydroxyapatite

Composites

Carbon-carbon

Resilient

Easy to fabricate

Strong, tough

Ductile

bio compatible, inert

Strong in compression

Strong, tailor made

Not strong

Deform with time

May degrade

...

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