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Laiklik in Turkey

Essay by review  •  October 8, 2010  •  Essay  •  1,242 Words (5 Pages)  •  1,114 Views

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1. ABSTRACT

There is no empirical evidence that trade exposure per se increases child labour. As trade theory and household economics lead people to expect, the cross-country evidence seems to indicate that trade reduces or has significant effects on child labour.Consistently with the theory, a comparatively well educated labour force and active social policies, appear to be conducive to a reduction in child labour. For countries with a largely uneducated workforce, the problem is not so much globalization, as being allowed to part in it.

2.-INTRODUCT√ź¬≠ON

2.1Backround

Globalization, the process by which an increasing share of world production is traded internationally and the productive systems of different countries become increasingly integrated is created with many merits and held responsible for many evils.

2.2 The aim of this paper

This paper attempts to answer the question: given that international trade has major implications, are children to be among the losers. In other words, given that child labour appear to be on the increase world wide could this be consequence of globalization?

2.3The measure of child labour

The measure of child labour is the participation rate of between 10 and 14. That is an important indicator of early involment in work activities but present two lacunae. The first is which by excluding children younger than 10 ages. The second lacuna is that the measure of child labour does not include children working within the household, does not account for children engaged in official work activities. Children are extensively engaged in domestic activities and that many children reportedly doing nothing could be actually working.

As an alternative to this measure of child labour, government should use also primary school non-attendance rate. The shortcoming of this is: a child not attending school is necessarily working. On the other hand, children who are not reporting for school are more difficult to monitor. Because of this, the non-attendance rate is not only a correlate of child labour at very young age but also a valuable danger signal.

2.4. The scope

Countries with little international exposure differ more widely with regard to child labour than the other in global economy. There is no empirical evidence that trade exposure per se increases child labour.As a trade theory and household decision lead people to expect, the cross-country evidence seems to indicate that the trade reduces or has no significant effect on child labour.With the information comparatively well educated labour force and active social policies, appear to be conducive to a reduction in child labour.

3. METHODS

This paper built on an extensive review of the increasing the child labour because of the

free trade. For that purpose, fundamental assumptions and empirical findings of 2 journal and

Magazine articles and web sites will be analyzed. Additionally 3 books on child labour and

free trade will be made use of to have a better understanding of phenomenon.These sources

will provide an understanding about the basics of increasing of increasing child labour process

As well as the effect of this process on household decision, effect of trade and cross-country

evidence.

4. FINDINGS

4.1-The household decision

The first thing to be kept in mind is that children do not choose to work. Most have that decision taken for them, usually by their parents. Even in the case of a child who was expelled the reason for his or her permidicament can be traced back to parental action. The second thing is that great majority of working children in the family business, most often a farm or in the household itself.

According to Under Free Trade Fire, the first piece of economics which describes the household as a 'small open economy' immersed in a wider market economy. Much of this literature is based on assumption that parents act as a dictator. For example, assume that parents are altruistically inclined towards their ultimately self-intersted.The decision about going school or working does not in fact depend on three things:

-cost

-the expect return to education

-finance educational investment (UNICEF)

If

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