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In What the Evolution of the Governance and Human Right of a Country Participate to Improve the International Relations?

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International Relations

                                        Fall 2014


In what the evolution of governance and human rights of a country participate to improve the international relations?   

        


Introduction

It has been argued by Ola Joseph (1999) that international relations are the study of all forms of interactions that exist between members of separate entities or nations within the international system. This report explores the historical, philosophical and political origins of the human rights regime in different continents. As it is clearly understandable, a continent itself cannot draw a uniform evolution in every country. This is why this project deals with specific nations that have been chosen in order to have a detailed study of the topic. In fact, the aim is to determine in what the evolution of governance and human rights participate to improve international relations. The main idea is to understand that human rights are defined as the merging of basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled. Consequently, human rights define and include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law. The existence of universal human rights is closely linked to the principal of governance in countries. Thus, all countries have to respect and apply basic principles of human rights in order to lead effectively the governance of their own country. The term “governance” refers to the establishment of specific policies, and constant control of the proper implementation of each country, by members that are part of the government. Therefore, the fact to govern includes procedures, which are required to create equilibrium between the powers of the members. Their primary function is to enhance the prosperity and viability of the organization target. In this way, the project will explore every continent through a specific country focusing on how human rights have changed over the years either positively or negatively. Even if globalization participates mainly to a positive evolution concerning human rights, it is important to specify that each country follow a different evolution. This is why this project will not discuss of the same changes in the different continents and countries chosen.

  1. European Union
  1. Governance and human right of the European Union

        The European Union is a major economic players worldwide representing 30 % of global GDP and 20% of trade flows. Its single currency is used by more than half of the citizens of the European Union, and is now recognized as an international currency.

The appearance of European Union created a new governance to detect, prevent and correct the economy of countries such as government deficits, public debts, disparities, exchange, employment, education, globalization and aging population.

In recent years, trade and financial flows have increased significantly between the EU and others countries thanks to the evolution of new technologies, including lower costs of transport, policy release..

However, globalization is a help for the economy of a country, the UE is also forced in industry and commercial sector to pay attention and to face of the competition from low-cost company such as China…

The European Union has an atypical political governance with multiple actors. Indeed, members of the European Union are independent sovereign nation. Decisions are taken through shared institutions. There are three institutions involved in the legislative process.

Firstly, the European Parliament is composed of deputies elected for a term of 5 years by the EU citizens. The European Parliament is composed of 751 deputies elected in the 28 member countries of the European Union. The number of members representing each Member State varies depending on the number of habitants. For example in France there are 74 deputies, in Poland 51 and in Austria 18. Each country during the elections, shall ensure equality between the sexes and the secrecy of the ballot. The voting age is 18 years, except in Austria, where it is 16 years.... European Parliament members are grouped by political affinity and a little more than a third of members are women.

Secondly, the European Council, which represents the governments of Member States. The Council Presidency is held alternately by each Member State, on a rotating system. Key EU priorities are set by the European Council, which brings together national and European leaders.

And finally the European Commission, which represents the interests of the Union as a whole. The EU's interests as a whole are defended by the European Commission, whose members are appointed by national governments.

        Overall, its three institutions decide and develop policies and legislation implemented throughout the EU. Indeed, the Commission shall submit proposals for legislation, which are adopted by Parliament and Council. Then, the legislation is implemented and applied by the Member States and the Commission.

The European Union is a major player in international relations that is involved in the world. Such as the creation of a consensus on Humanitarian which is heavily used by NGOs on international humanitarian law in particular. Europe is also involved on the global energy policy, which is a concern geopolitical, economic, environmental and social.

The EU plays a major role at international, whether through diplomacy, trade, peace, human rights, security worldwide development aid, climate change, trade or cooperation with international organizations.

The Union seeks to ensure respect for human rights in all these actions. She collaborates with the United Nations concerning international relations.

Human rights are for the European Union universal and indivisible. They are promoted and defended insight the EU and outsight when engaging in international relations with non EU countries.

Those rights have been reinforced when the EU adopted the Charter of Fundamental Rights in 2000 and with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. It is mandatory that Countries that want join the EU respect human rights. The Union’s human rights policy contains civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. It promotes also the rights of women, of children and disabled persons. They also supported the ONGs.

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