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Global System for Mobile Communications

Essay by   •  February 19, 2011  •  Essay  •  769 Words (4 Pages)  •  1,081 Views

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Introduction: GSM services are a standard collection of applications and features available to mobile phone subscribers all over the world. The GSM standards are defined by the 3GPP collaboration and implemented in hardware and software by equipment manufacturers and mobile phone operators. The common standard makes it possible to use the same phones with different companies' services, or even roam into different countries. GSM is the world's most dominant mobile phone standard.

The design of the service is moderately complex because it must be able to locate a moving phone anywhere in the world, and accommodate the relatively small battery capacity, limited input/output capabilities, and weak radio transmitters on mobile devices.

How outgoing calls are made from a mobile :

Once a mobile phone has successfully attached to a GSM network as described above, calls may be made from the phone to any other phone on the global Public Switched Telephone Network assuming the subscriber has an arrangement with their "home" phone company to allow the call.

The user dials the telephone number, presses the send or talk key, and the mobile phone sends a call setup request message to the mobile phone network via the mobile phone mast (BTS) it is in contact with.

The element in the mobile phone network that handles the call request is the Visited Mobile Switching Center (Visited MSC). The MSC will check against the subscriber's temporary record held in the Visitor Location Register to see if the outgoing call is allowed. If so, the MSC then routes the call in the same way that a telephone exchange does in a fixed network.

If the subscriber is on a Pay As You Go tariff, then an additional check is made to see if the subscriber has enough credit to proceed. If not, the call is rejected. If the call is allowed to continue, then it is continually monitored and the appropriate amount is decremented from the subscriber's account. When the credit reaches zero, the call is cut off by the network. The systems that monitor and provide the prepaid services are not part of the GSM standard services, but instead an example of intelligent network services that a mobile phone operator may decide to implement in addition to the standard GSM ones.

How incoming calls are made to a mobile:

Step One: Contact the Gateway MSC

When someone places a call to a mobile phone, they dial the telephone number (also called a MSISDN) associated with the phone user and the call is routed to the mobile phone operator's Gateway Mobile Switching Centre. The Gateway MSC, as the name suggests, acts as the "entrance" from exterior portions of the Public Switched Telephone Network onto the provider's network.

As noted above, the phone is free to roam anywhere in the operator's

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