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Fermentation Wet Methods to Extract Oat ?-Glucan

Essay by   •  May 6, 2019  •  Term Paper  •  452 Words (2 Pages)  •  59 Views

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whole grain oats—oat bran( rich in dietary fibre—water soluble B-glucan)

The β-glucan concentration of regular oat brans is usually between 6-12 percent which is lower than the required level.

WET METHODS TO EXTRACT OAT Β-GLUCAN

The purification of β-glucan fractions from oats by wet extraction is usually based on the following technologies: enzymatic hydrolysis of non-β-glucan components, acid, base or solvent precipitation and/or wet sieving of the water insoluble materials. By wet methods, the β-glucan concentration of extracted fractions can be as high as 95 percent.

For example, a process developed by USDA is based on α-amylase aided hot water extraction. After the extraction, β-glucan containing solid particles are separated and dried. The product can be further modified by separating the soluble fibre into a specific product by high-temperature mechanical shearing of β-glucan containing solids in water. From this, non-soluble fibres are removed by filtration or centrifugation, and the liquid is dried to produce the soluble β-glucan concentrate.

http://www.teknoscienze.com/Articles/Agro-FOOD-INDUSTRY-hi-tech-Minireview-beta-Glucan-extraction-methods-from-oats.aspx

Environmental friendly enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from plant sources

Methods such as cold pressing, super-critical fluid and solvent extraction are used to extract bio actives from plants. Solvent-based extraction of bio-actives is not desirable due to the low extraction yields and accumulation of traces of organic solvent in the final product, many drawbacks, including safety hazards, high energy input, environment risk and toxicological effects. Enzyme-based extraction of bioactive compounds from plant is a potential alternative to conventional solvent based extraction methods.

Enzymes have the ability to degrade or disrupt cell walls and membranes, thus enabling better release and more efficient extraction of bio actives. Enzyme application, phospholipase applied in degumming of soybean oil. Enzymes such as pectinases, cellulases and hemicellulases are widely used in juice processing and beer clarification to degrade cell wall and juice extractability. The disruption of cell wall matrix also releases components such as phenolic compounds including polysachharides, oils, natural pigments, flavours and medicinal compounds. . A particularly useful application of enzymes increases the effect of solvent pre-treatment and either reduces the amount of solvent needed for extraction or increases the yield of extractable compounds. A particularly useful application of enzymes increases the effect of solvent pre-treatment and either reduces the amount of solvent needed for extraction or increases the yield of extractable compounds.

Solvent used

Product

Polarity of Solvents

Cyclohexane, hexane, toluene, benzene, ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate

Alkaloids, terpenoids, coumarins, FA, flavonoids, terpenoids

Aplolar

Acetone, butanol, propanol, ethanol, methane

Flavonols, lecithin, alkaloids, flavones, polyphenols, tannins

Polar

List of bioactive compounds of industrial importance obtained by enzyme-assisted extraction from plants

Product type

Product

Source

Enzyme-used

Yield

Oils and caretonoids

Oil

Grape seed

Cellulase, protease, xylase and pectinase

17.5

Carotenoids

Marigold flower

Viscozyme, Pectinex, neutrase,

corolase and HT-proteolytic

97

Lycopene

Tomato

Pancreatin

2.5-fold

Capsaicin

Chilli

Cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase

n.d.a

Colourant

Pitaya

Pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic

and cellulolytic enzymes

83.5

Anthocyanin

Grape skin

Pectinex BE3-L

n.d.a

Glycosides

Sugar

Grapefruit peel waste

0.6377

Oligosaccharide

Rice bran

Cellulase

39.9

Pectin

Pumpkin

Xylase, cellulose, b-glucosidase,

endopolygalacturonase and pectinesterase

14.0

Others

Phenolics

Citrus peel

Celluzyme MX

65.5

Proteins

Lentils and white beans

Glucoamylases

50.3

Catechins

Tea beverage

Pepsin

80

...

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