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Durkheim Division of Laber

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Emile Durkheim main concern was social order, and how individual integrated to maintain it. The Division of Labor was one of Durkheim's first major works. Society is a system of inter-related and inter-connected of not only individuals but also subgroups interacting with one another. Durkheim is interested on how this division of labor changes the way that individuals feel when they are part of society as a whole. As society advances it becomes more complex, and as it becomes more complex, it gets harder to maintain with the rise of conflict. According to Durkheim, this is why society has its division of labor, and in order to survive, society is broken down to certain specializations where people are more dependent on each other. Durkheim believed that the division of labor begins when the social, economic and political boundaries dividing segments begin to break down and smaller segments come together. Within these segments, Durkheim describes another degree of integration which is broken down into two aspects; Mechanical Solidarity and Organic Solidarity. Within in these social solidarities, he identifies a system of social relations linking individuals to each other and to the society as a whole.

Societies where solidarity is mechanical, are referred to a bonding of individuals based on common beliefs and values, which more tied by a kinship aspect. "Mechanical Solidarity is based upon a strong collective conscience regulating the thought and actions of individuals located with structural units that are all alike" (Turner). Individuals are bind together where they share a similar customs and morality. As a result of this type of social link, it is difficult to distinguish the individual's values versus society's value. Because people live in a community where each individual must work together to provide a well-being for another, they become far too dependent on each other. This type of livelihood suppresses the individual conscience and in fact encourages the collective conscience. By having such a homogenous population, a system of belief is uniformly shared throughout, constructing a standardized attitude and actions amongst the people often rooted in religious laws. Social bonds are of responsibility rather than contract, therefore the division of labor is divided into tasks for collective reasons

Contrary to Mechanical Solidarity, is Organic Solidarity. "Organic Societies reveal high degrees of interdependence among individuals and corporate units, with exchange, legal contracts, and norms regulating these interrelations." (Turner). Individuals become more dependent on others to perform separate economic functions which they are unable to carry out themselves. Rather than responsibilities based on the collective values, individual's performance in the society is based on an occupational aspect. The division of labor is more establish through a mutual economic interdependence. Hence, the relationship between man and society is framed by a contract. The people carry out specialized functions which regulates the performance in the society as a whole. This type of secular society, has a larger population than the type of a mechanical one, the collective conscience is significantly lower due to the fact the each individual have more of a freedom, which may then lead to an anomie; a social instability due to the deteriorating standards of norms and values. Anomie refers to the breakdown of social norms where these norms no longer control the activities of the members of society. Because Organic societies are much larger, it becomes more complex, there interactions amongst the people are no longer tied with social bonds and is impersonal. A way of solving this problem is strengthening associations with in the society, creating a stronger normative structure, hence regaining a collective conscience.

As mentioned early, a mechanical society has a stronger collective conscience. Collective conscience is a system



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