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In this lab, we are testing the two method of simple distillation and fractional distillation with toluene and hexane. We use Dalton's law of partial pressures, which is equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure, to help calculate the total pressure above the liquid in the system. Dalton's law of partial pressure is equal to the sum of partial pressures of the sample and of the air (Gilbert and Martin). The method of simple distillation allows the separation of distillates from less-volatile substances that remain as pot residue at the completion of the distillation through a condenser (Gilbert and Martin). The second method we tested was the theory of fractional distillation. Fractional distillation uses the same techniques as simple distillation except that it uses a Vigreux column rather than a condenser.

The goal of this lab was to separate and isolate toluene and hexane from a homogenous mixture of these two chemicals combined together. Another goal of this lab was to determine which distillation method is more efficient. To do this we used both the methods of simple distillation and fractional distillation to separate toluene and hexane from one another. We would watch the thermometer until it reached a specific temperature (~69oC, ~100oC, and after 100oC) before placing on a new flask to collect either hexane, the homogenous mixture, or toluene. Afterwards we would take a sample from the collected hexane, homogenous mixture, or toluene and place it into the Gas Chromatography machine to determine the retention time and relative area of hexane, homogenous mixture, and toluene.



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