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Corporate Lobbying Strategies

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CORPORATE LOBBYING STRATEGIES

TERM PAPER

The Bologna Process:

a stock-taking analysis and a strategic approach to further promote its ideas and aims

Monti Cristina

christinamonti@libero.it

June 2005

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 3

1.1. European cooperation in the field of education: an overview 3

1.1.1. EU action in education 3

1.2. Why is education so important? 4

2. THE BOLOGNA PROCESS 7

2.1. Aims and key concepts 7

2.2. Main developments 7

2.3. Bergen: a mid-term review 8

2.4. What has changed? 9

2.5. What remains to be done? 10

3. A STRATEGIC APPROACH TO FULLY ACCOMPLISH THE PROCESS 12

3.1. General considerations 12

3.2. Strategic approach 13

3.2.1. Inclusion of all stakeholders 13

3.2.2. Communication 16

3.2.3. Enhance cooperation 16

3.2.4. More resources 17

3.2.5. Emphasis on quality 17

3.2.6. Evaluation process 17

3.2.7. Better training for teachers and higher education staff 17

3.2.8. New technologies and creative solutions 18

3.2.9. Build synergy with other on-going processes 18

3.2.10. After 2010? 18

4. CONCLUSION 19

5. REFERENCES 20

We must cherish our rich heritage and cultural diversity

in contributing to a knowledge-based society... As higher education is situated at the crossroad of research, education and innovation, it is also the key

to Europe's competitiveness.

European Ministers Responsible for Higher Education

Bergen Communiquй, 19-20 May 2005

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. European cooperation in the field of education: an overview

Education in Europe has both deep roots and great diversity. While it is a primary concern in all European countries, the structures and systems of education differ considerably. In the Treaty of Rome (1958), no mention was made of this field, which was gradually introduced during the 1970s, when education ministers decided to create an information network, Eurydice, for a better understanding of educational policies and systems throughout the various Member States. Later, in 1986, the Erasmus programme (currently part of the Socrates progamme) was launched, allowing not only for information exchanges but also for student exchanges. Yet it was only in 1992 with the Maastricht Treaty that education became formally recognised as an area of EU responsibility.

In accordance with Articles 149 and 150 of the Treaty, the role of the EU is to "contribute to the development of quality education by encouraging cooperation between Member States and, if necessary, supporting and supplementing their actions". Therefore, the EU does not have a real common education policy, but, under the subsidiarity principle, it promotes cooperation between the Member States, which preserve their rights in establishing the content of teaching and the organisation of their education systems.

1.1.1. EU action in education

The EU has developed specific programmes (Socrates, Leonardo da Vinci, Youth, Tempus) aimed at boosting cooperation and providing support in the fields of education, training and youth, each with different content, scope and measures.

The EU also acts through legislation (recommendations, communications, pilot projects, etc.) promoting cooperation between the Member States on policy issues. This form of action has been gaining importance over the last few years, in particular since the Lisbon Council in 2000, which introduced the "open method of coordination". This new tool allows Member States to make their national policies converge and obtain common objectives but respecting their differences. The common objectives in the area of education have been set out in a Report adopted by the Council in 2001 and they are:

* Better quality of education and training systems;

* Make lifelong learning more accessible;

* Make education and training systems more outward-looking as regards the rest of the world.

1.2. Why is education so important?

The ambitious goal set in the Lisbon Strategy (2000) to make Europe by 2010 "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable growth, with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion" has an obvious direct link with education. Only through education can knowledge be generated. Only education can provide the skills and expertise needed to compete on the world market and to have better and more qualified jobs. Only education can spread ideas of tolerance and integration and of a conscious European citizenship. In this sense, education represents the "glue" which links together the concepts of innovation, research, employment, competitiveness and social cohesion, being one of the bases of the European social model. Competitiveness of modern societies in a globalized world is dependent

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