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Consumer Behaviour

Essay by   •  December 11, 2017  •  Case Study  •  2,269 Words (10 Pages)  •  994 Views

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Executive Summary

In general, this report focusses on the model of Theory of Planned Behaviour, its application on recycling behaviour and the strengths and weaknesses in using this theory. Theory of Planned Behaviour explains the intention behind certain behaviour. According to the theory, intention of conducting a behaviour is influenced by three global variables: (1) Attitude, (2) Subjective norm and (3) Perceived control. With the support of past studies, this theory has been widely used in understanding health behaviour such as risking driving, diet and having protected sex. However, it could also explain purchasing, complaining and information-seeking behaviour in business setting.

With an aim on recycling behaviour, this report has found that three global variables could indeed explain the intention of recycling and littering behaviour. In terms of attitude, people who recycle believe that recycling could bring good impact to the environment and help in future community. Besides, social norm that practice not littering will also boost the behaviour of recycling. When a person is provided with the correct knowledge and facilities of recycle, he will perceive himself have higher ability in performing this behaviour and this confidence can influence him to start recycling.

There are some strengths and weaknesses in applying Theory of Planned Behaviour. Not only this theory could help in better understanding intention behind human behaviour but it could also be used in many different contexts. However, one of the weaknesses is that this theory of the lack of consideration whether an individual have the same opportunity in performing in an action. This theory also does not include time frame, past experiences and financial ability of an individual in conducting a behaviour.

In conclusion, Theory of Planned Behaviour could help in understanding reason behind a behaviour and aiding in creating intervention strategies to change a behaviour to a desired behaviour. Nevertheless, it should be noted that there are still some disadvantages in using this theory and intention of a behaviour should be carefully interpreted.

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Literature Review

The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is developed by Icek Ajzen and Martin Fisbein, which also known as the theory of reasoned action. The development of this theory is to understand the estimation of the conflict between behaviour and attitude (CHIRr, 2016).  The main function of TPB is to understands the underlying reason of a certain behaviour and prediction of a person’s deliberate behaviour. According to appendix 1 -  Theory of planned behaviour, it was explained that a person action is determined by three kinds of consideration. The three considerations or the global variables are the attitude, subjective norm and perceived control. In TPB, attitude is known as a person’s belief or expectation of a behaviour. For example, a person will conduct a behaviour if he or she believe that there will be a positive outcome, or vice versa. This situation can also be referred to Expected-Value Theory. Subjective norm is defined as an individual’s perception towards peoples who are important to him or her think about whether to comply or not to comply a certain action. For example, a person decision on a certain action is influenced by his or her close friends, family and significant other. Next, perceived control is the mindset and confidence of a person in doing a particular action, the higher the confidence level to make more attempt in that action. For example, if an obese person thinks or believe that he or she has the ability to slim down, that person will take that action to slim down. Furthermore, each of the global variables have the ability to affect or influence a person’s intention and behaviour. Among the three global variables, attitude has the most influence in predicting a person intention in taking a particular action.        

According to the research done by Omodior, Pennington-Gray & Donohoe (2015) TPB is a theory that can be said to be the most effective way to find out how big the person's intentions in doing something, especially in the research they have done on how big the intention to engage Tick-Borne Disease. They use this theory to randomly select a sample of visitors on Lake Wauburg and uses social circles to measure the scale of them. From the original random sample of 380, 324 samples showed that the respondents have a positive attitude to get involved in the Tick-Borne Diseases. The researchers found that TPB has a practical value to determine or predict the visitors are involved in the disease. But in the end, the results of which indicated that theory say more is needed to get a more accurate accuracy of research.

Furthermore, in the journal of Stefano, P (2001), it shows that the verification of self-identity in purchase intention in the framework of TPB. Research with purpose to understand the purchase intention of an individual. This study further solidify principles of TPB in business setting as they found that attitudes and beliefs towards a product can influence a person’s purchase intention. Besides, results also shows that different self-identity would influences personal belief which will further change the purchase intention.

2.0 Content

2.1 Application of Theory of Planned Behaviour

In order to apply the TPB into our topic which is recycling, few researches on the specific topic has been done. Recycling is known as The Three R’s, which are reduce, reuse and recycle. Recycle is a process of treating used or waste materials into usable item. The main objective of recycling is to minimize the amount of waste materials that we throw away (Missouri, 2016).

According to Robert B. et al., (1990) the journal is about a research of recycling but more specific in the concepts of norms in reducing littering in the public areas. The authors used descriptive and instructive norm as the method to measure the behaviour of a person littering in the public areas. Descriptive norm describes an action that most others do or as typical or normal action that done by most of the people. For example, most of the Malaysian citizen tends to throw rubbish in the public areas, therefore when foreigner visited to Malaysia they would do the same action.  Next, instructive norm defined as rules or beliefs that morally approved or disapproved by others. For example, a foreigner who visited to Japan would not throw rubbish in the street because Japanese do not throw rubbish in the street but keep their trash in their own personal trash bag. As the result of the research in this journal, the authors found that norm with high salience will influence the behaviour of the participants. Both of descriptive and instructive norm are subjective norm because both of the norms are explaining the impacts of surroundings in human behaviour. Lastly, this research supports the factor of subjective norm in changing human behaviour in littering.

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