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Construction of Baghlihar Dam

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The Founder of Pakistan once said,

"The press is a great force that can prove useful as well as harmful. If it works in the right direction, it can pave the way for public weal"

"Press" means any establishment of mass medium activity such as newspapers, magazines, periodicals, journals, pamphlets, news agencies, radio, television, motion pictures, pictures, films, cartoons, books, music, electronic publishing, plays and includes all media of mass communication.

Journalism has become an industry, but that does not deprive it of its missionary character. The very existence of newspaper depends and shall always continue to depend upon popular approval; therefore, journalism could not possibly refrain from playing a missionary role.

The issue of Freedom and Responsibility in relation to the press will forever contributes to be debated. Often the tendency is to emphasize one in isolation of the other. The situation strive for is where the freedom is unrestrained but is exercised with full consciousness of its purpose-which is to serve the interests of the people and protect and promote the fundamental rights of individuals.

In short, a journalist should work with a mission and help the people in their search for truth.


The aim of the press is not merely to record the current events and disseminate news. This is the age of revolutions and of radical changes in human life. Today we are faced with a great many national and international problems that require greatness of character and maximum utilization of human capabilities for their solution. The People living in the state based on an ideology can accomplish their goal only if they can discharge responsibilities that lie in their shoulders. Our basic duty is not only to know the world, but we must let the world know what is our goal.


An important difference between the readership of the press on the one hand and the audience of radio and television on the other is that the reading public is relatively more conscious.

This is merely because of the fact that only those who have acquired sufficient knowledge of reading can read the newspaper while this qualification is not essential for the listener or the

viewer. In turn, this difference gives larger audience to the first two media than the press and consequently a hold over a wider cross section. However, in the developing countries, where the opinion of the educated, because it is also more vocal, had a distinct edge over the opinion of uneducated. Thus the advantage of the radio and the television gained in terms of the number is offset to a degree by the newspapers because of the importance of its readership.

It is also due to the fact that the printed word carries somehow greater conviction and is of lasting nature than the spoken words.


The three major functions that the Press should perform may be stated as under:

It performs an amplifying function by magnifying the good actions of individuals to the point that they can be felt throughout the society, in the sense of transforming mere "man-sized" acts into "society-sized" acts. To a remarkable degree the difference between private and public affairs is determined by the extent to which acts of individuals are either amplified or ignored by the Press Media without a networks capable of enlarging and magnifying the works and choices of individuals there could be no politics capable of spanning a nation.

The other function of Press Media should be to provide the essential basis for rationality. People can sensibly debate their collective actions only if they share a common fund of knowledge and information. And only if they have some minimum appreciation of how others have been informed about the state of affairs can citizens decide upon the wisdom and the validity of the reasoning behind the actions of their leaders.

It should also be used for projecting a desired future political configuration according to the aspirations of the people.

If we carefully analyze these three major tasks, these would seem to concentrate at creating well-informed public opinion, which is one of the major indictors of political development. Also there is hidden assumption about the political process, which is viewed as tending towards democratic lines.


Press stands for the pursuit of fundamental freedom, peace, democracy, justice, and equality and for the acceleration of social and economic development.

Accordingly, press:

a. Gathers and disseminates news;

b. Expresses opinions on various issues;

c. Forwards criticisms on various issues

d. Participates in forming public opinion by employing various other methods

e. Undertakes other activities necessary for the accomplishment of its purposes.


The press is the only entity providing any sense of balance to the all powerful and monopolistic nature of government, and the USA founding father Thomas Jefferson's statement that he would rather have a free press without a government rather than a government without a free press speaks of why the press was made the fifth independent branch of a functioning government (after the constitution, legislative, judicial and executive branches), through its institution in the first amendment.

The function of the press is essential for a civil society. It is simply impossible to have a civil society without a functioning press. What is less simple is for countries that do not have a proper press to develop such a press. A simple answer of "just free up the press" will simply not work in most cases and in a competitive power-politic international environment.

The problem stems from transition issues that countries, which started with a free press, do not face. Countries that have always had a free press have developed organically and in tandem with other public institutions that together with



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