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Civil Rights Movement 1954-

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This essay will cover points on the main events of the Civil Rights movement from 1954-65, and the impact that was made through them.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-56

On the 13 November 1956 the Supreme Court outlawed segregation on Montgomery buses in the Browder v. Gale case. There had been successful mass boycott of buses by all Black citizens of Montgomery who were fuelled with intent to fight oppression and a determined onward pursuit for desegregation. In order for the Boycott to make an impact, Black people chose to walk to work or travel by taxi or private car pools, no matter what age or state of physical health. 'My feets is tired but my soul is rested'. Throughout the Boycott the NAACP constantly challenged the courts on the terms of complete desegregation, which eventually reached the Supreme Court. The Montgomery Bus Boycott lasted 381 days, and paved the way for further civil right actions.

Impact/effect on the Civil Rights movement

- Paved the way for Martin Luther King to invoke his message and thoughts to the Black people and to become one of the most prominent leaders in the Civil Rights movement.

- Ordinary Black citizens now new that they themselves could make a difference.

- Depiction of how non-violent protest could accomplish desegregation.

- The SCLC was an organisation created through the Boycott to continue the battle for Civil Rights.

- Television brought the Boycott to a mass of people throughout America, which depicted the racism of Southern White people.

- The Federal Government felt an obligation to operate when illegal acts of segregation and discrimination were committed.

The Lunch Counter Sit-Ins 1960

Throughout the 1960's the Civil Rights movement incorporated a new generation of educated black students to lead against discrimination. Four of which were students of the Agricultural and Technical College in Greensboro, North Alabama. Staying true to Martin Luther King's philosophy of non-violent protest, the students casually sat in a Whites Only section in a local Woolworth's diner, politely asking to be served, with no reaction. As the days past the numbers grew until the Lunch Counter 'Woolworths' closed down. The protest spread throughout the USA and in total a hundred cities would be affected.

Impact/effect on the Civil Rights Movement.

- The SNCC was set up and aimed to tackle discrimination at a wider range.

- The USA viewed the violent reactions of Southern White people, and further

Opened there mind to non-violent protest.

- A large number of Lunch Counters became desegregated.

- In over 810 cities public places had become desegregated.

- A number of black and white people were now inspired to protest through non-violent

tactics but in diverse ways.

The Freedom Rides, 1961

The Freedom rides was a method thought up by CORE Member James farmer that aimed to tackle the issue of segregation on interstate terminals and too verify whether the Boyton v. Virginia ruling would be imposed and enforced. The Freedom Rides began with a number of selected Black and White people to travel the distance between Washington D.C and New Orleans. Though the journey was intended to elucidate whether desegregation would be upheld, it was also thought that if violence had occurred, the Federal Government would be obliged to act. However this was not the case as State officials were authorized to arrest protesters as long as white attacks were prevented, though the damage had clearly been done (Jim Zwerg).

Impact/effect on the Civil Rights Movement

- Demonstrated how not all forms of protest would be completely successful.

- Media publicity had been limited but defined the intentions and actions of white racists.

- Protection from attacks were eventually achieved but resulted in imprisonment.

- There had been no change in law as the Federal Government strived to keep Southern peace.

- Brought together both White and Blacks to fight for the same cause.

The Albany Campaign 1961-1962

The Albany campaign was a range of protests led by King in order to provoke a violent response which would conclude in Federal Intervention. King was constantly in jail for his actions, but when promptly released continued protesting against segregation, which led to a local boycott along with rallies and protest meetings. Though King's efforts to provoke violence were concentrated, he was tactically overcome by Laurie Pritchett, who strategically ensured that the Federal Government had no reason to involve itself. When King returned to Albany to further protest he was sent to jail, but his fine was anonymously paid so that he could not register his protest. We are to believe this was the cunning work of Pritchett himself.

Impact/effect on the Civil Right Movement

- Failed to create a situation where the Federal Authorities felt obliged to act.

- Desegregated parks were closed and libraries were removed of chairs.

- SNCC and NAACP realised cooperation was needed, but there was still resentment between the two groups.

- A United front was needed if success was to be achieved.

- Laurie Pritchett challenged the provoking of violence method of King and countered, allowing for further replica.

James Meredith's entry into Mississippi University, 1962

James Meredith was the first to triumph in changing the laws of non- Black admission in the University of Mississippi. He had previously been declined acceptance, but with the rising will to end discrimination, the Federal Court ruled in favour of him. Kennedy had eventually agreed with Governor Ross Barnett that state protection would be enforced for Meredith. However



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