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Chemistry Metals Report

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Chemistry (Research Task)

Gather, process, analyse and present information from secondary source on the rage of alloys produced and the reasons for the production and use of these alloys

Metals have been used all throughout history- from stone age to our modern developed

society. Metals are naturally obtained from metal ores, and are mixed with other substances to be used as resources for the development of human civilisation. More metals are being used in their impure form

Some metals which have been used throughout history are-

Gold- 6000(BC) an uncombined metal the first metal to be used since the stone age. It’s majorly used in decorations and as jewellery as it’s malleable and can be used in its native form (not combined with other elements). And it's also used more for its exquisite luxurious shiny character.

In our current modern age- Gold is primarily used for making jewelleries, bullion, coins, electronics (computers), medically(radioactive gold), satellites etc...

Copper- 4200(BC) an uncombined metal was also one of the oldest metals used through history known as the ‘Copper Age’. Was used for decorations, tools, ornaments and jewellery such as ( bracelets and earrings). Copper’s also naturally found its native form and was used without any purification at that time.

In our current age- Copper is used as wide range of resources such as for wiring, plumbing, electronics, building constructions, medical, utensils etc… as it is also recyclable

Silver- 4000(BC) an uncombined metal used by the ancients, the lustrous shine of silver increased it’s value, and was used to produce various coins, jewellery, medicine(silver contained (medical properties), and also represented wealth and status.

In our current age- silver is jewellery, coins,medals, photography, electrical batteries, medical(dental fillings), brazing, soldering etc...

Lead- 3500(BC) A soft-grey metallic element used for plumbing, making pipes even in early times. Was well known for it’s strong resistance to corrosion and its malleability.

In our current age- Pb is used in car batteries, bullets(military), weights, ceramic glazes, water pipes, paints,gasoline, medical(radiation shield) etc...

Tin-1750(BC) Mostly known for producing many useful alloys (bronze) and because it resists corrosion it is used a top-coating substance on other metals to prevent from corrosion and rusting.

In our current age- tin is usually used as a solder material, a protective coat, corrosion resistance tinplates and the manufacturing of bronze. Tin is also an useful element in the electronic industry.

The properties and uses of different alloys


(Martensitic stainless steels)

11-17% chromium

0.4% nickel

1.2% carbon


heat-treatable steels


cutting tools, medical equipment.


(Lead Brasses)



Tin (small amount)

Lead up to 3.5%

Good strength

high machinability

corrosion resistance






180-190 °C

Tin- 35 -60%


solidifies more slowly

Low melting point



Soldering joints

2. Explain why energy input is necessary to extract a metal from its ore, and to identify why there are more metals available for people to use now than there were 200 years ago

Energy input is vital when extracting a metal from it’s ore as these mineral deposits are high in oxides.

And, chemical reactions are needed to release these valuable minerals. And, it’s a necessity need of energy input required in order to break the chemical bonds of the metals oxides. As, the more reactive an element is, the more amount of energy is required to extract the element.


When extracting the element aluminum (Al) and magnesium(Mg) a large amount of energy is needed to extract these valuable metals from the ore. (Al and Mg is extracted from a method called ‘electrolysis’)

Zinc and Lead are extracted by chemical reactions involving carbon monoxide.

Silver and Copper are extracted from a variety of different chemical reactions.

The main methods of extracting minerals from metal ores are (dependent on their level of reactivity)

Treating metal ores by heat



Processing metal ores by electricity


More metals are available for people to use now than there were 200 years ago because of our improvement on technology. As we have found new ways to extract metals (such as electrolysis- which helped us to extract minerals like aluminum and potassium.) and the metals which has been used throughout history from gold to the transuranium elements, also shows proof on the changes of technology and the way it has influenced us.

3.Analyse information to relate the chronology of the Bronze Age, the Iron Age and the modern era and possible future developments.

The timeline of our human history is separated into 3 main stages/ages based on the usage of metals used 5000 years ago:




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