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Breast Cancer

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Breast Cancer

The medical name for breast cancer, is carcinoma. There are 2 types of carcinoma. Ductal carcinoma is non-invasive cancer found in the lining of the breast milk duct. Lobular carcinoma is when the breast cancer begins in the milk-producing glands, known as the lobules, of the breast. The pathological nature of the breast cancer starts with Stage 0 of breast cancer is known to have no evidence of cancer cells breaking out of the part of the breast in which they started, or of getting through to or invading neighboring normal tissue. Stage l breast cancer,  includes the tumor measuring up to 2 centimeters and no lymph nodes are involved. Stage ll (invasive) breast cancer,  includes the tumor measuring between 2 to 5 centimeters, or the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm on the same side as the breast cancer. Stage lll (locally advanced) breast cancer, includes the tumor in the breast measuring more than 2 inches in diameter across and the cancer is extensive in the underarm lymph nodes, or has spread to other lymph nodes or tissue near the breast. Stage lV (metastatic) breast cancer, is when the cancer has spread beyond the breast, underarm and internal mammary lymph nodes to other parts of the body near to or distant from the breast.

Breast cancer is diagnosed by having a biopsy done when mammograms, other imaging tests, or the physical exam shows a breast change that may be cancer. A biopsy is the only way to know for sure if it’s cancer. For a biopsy, a tiny sample of the suspicious area is taken out and tested in the lab. The sample is called a biopsy specimen. Things to have you considering a biopsy of the breast would be pain or ttenderness in the breast. Although lumps are usually painless, pain or tenderness can be a sign of breast cancer. A scaly rash of the nipple is symptomatic of Paget’s disease, which may be associated with an underlying breast cancer. Unusual discharge from the nipple that may be clear, bloody, or another color. Possible causes or risk factors of breast cancer can include smoking, drinking, your choice of diet, simply being a female, older in age, and certain gene changes. About 5% to 10% breast cancer cases are thought to be hereditary. Inherited mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Overall less than 15% of women with breast cancer have a family member with this disease. Most invasive breast cancers are found in women age 55 and older. Due to this, treatments are provided with all stages of cancer.



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