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Biology Cheat Sheet

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Respiratory system-gets oxygen to cells of your body and getting rid of carbon dioxide and breathing; involves the formation of ATP within cells; made up of nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, and lung Path of air-taking in air through nose or mouth; flows into pharynx; passes the epiglottis; moves through larynx; goes down windpipe trachea; bronchi; lead into lungs Trachea-tube like passageway that leads to two bronchi tubes; windpipe Epiglottis-piece of skin covers entrance to trachea when u swallow food Ciliated cells-in nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi; lined with ciliated cells that secrete mucus; cilia beats upward where foreign material can be swallowed or expelled by coughing or sneezing Alveoli-(like balloons) sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between the air and blood; at the ends of bronchioles; surrounded by networks of tinny blood vessels; blood in these vessel come from cells of body and contain wastes from cellular respiration; walls only one cell thick; blood that goes to alveoli from body's cells is high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen; carbon dioxide from the body diffuses from the blood into air spaces in the alveoli; External respiration-involves exchange of oxygen or carbon dioxide between the air in the alveoli and the blood that circulates through the walls of the alveoli; earth 78% nitrogen 21% oxygen 1%carbon dioxide water vapor and other gases Cellular respiration-cells use oxygen to break down glucose and release ATP energy; cartbon dioxide and water are waste products of this process; water stays in cell or diffuses into the blood; the carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood which carries it back to the lungs; Exhalation/inhalation-exhale carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen diffuses from the air in the alveoli intot he blood making blood rich in oxygen; inhale muscles in ribs contract and ribs rise and diaphragm->..and air rushes into your lungs because thepressure outside is greater than inside; exhale muscles wit ribs relax ribs drop down in chest and diapragm->..this forces out air from alveoli Diaphragm-muscle under lungs; enable breathe in and out; contracts and becomes flattened and moves lower in the chest cavity when inhaling; when exhaling relaxes returning to rest position; Control of respiration-involuntary controlled by chemistry of blood as it interacts with medulla oblongata which helps maintain homeostasis. Medulla oblongata-control of respiration; maintain homeostasis; respondes to higher levels of carbon dioxide in



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