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Atatð¬rk, Founder and the Firstpresident of the Turkish Republic

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Turkish War of Independence started with the first bullet shot at enemy on 15 May 1919 during the Gerek occupation of Эzmir. The fight against the victors of the First World War who had divided up the Ottoman Empire with the Treaty of Sevres signed on 10 August 1920, initially started with the militia forces called Kuva-yi Milliye. Turkish Assembly later initiated a regular army and achieving integration between the army and the militia, was able to conclude the war in victory.

The significant stages of the Turkish War of Independence under the Command of Mustafa Kemal are

Recapturing Sarэkamэю, Kars and Gьmrь

Ð--ukurova, Gazi Antep, KahramanmaraÑŽ, Юanlэ Urfa defenses (1919 - 1921)

Ist Эnцnь Victory

IInd Эnцnь Victory

Sakarya Victory

Great Attack, Battle of the Chief Commander and the Great Victory

After the Sakarya Victory, National Assembly bestowed the rank of marashal on Mustafa Kemal and the Gazi (veteran) title. War of Independences came to end with the Lozanne Agreement, which was signed on 24 July 1923. Hence, there were no longer any obstacles to create a new nation on Turkish soil which Treaty of Sevre had torn to pieces leaving Turks an area the size of 5-6 provinces,

The National Assembly which first convened on 23 April 1920 in Ankara was the first clue to the Turkish Republic. The successful management of the War of Independence by this assembly accelerated the founding of the new Turkish State. On 1 November 1922, the offices of the Sultan and caliph were severed from one other and the former was abolished. There was no longer any administrative ties with the Ottoman Empire. On 29 October 1923, Turkish Republic was formally proclaimed and Atatьrk was unanimously elected as its first President. On 30 October 1923, the first government of the Republic was formed by Эsmet Эnцnь. Turkish Republic started to grow on the foundations of the twin principles "Sovereignty, unconditionally belongs to the nation" and "peace at home and peace abroad".

AtatÑŒrk undertook a series of reforms to "raise Turkey to the level of modern civisilizations" which can be grouped under five titles

1. Political Reforms

Abolisment of the office of the Sultan (November 1922)

Proclamation of the Republic (29 October 1923)

Abolishment of the caliph (3 March 1924)

2. Social Reforms

Recognition of equal rights to men and women (1926 - 1934)

Reform of Headgear and Dress (25 November 1925)

Closure of mausoleums and dervish lodges (30 November 1925)

Law on family names (21 June 1934)

Abolisment of titles and by-names (26 November 1934)

Adoption of international calendar, hours and measurements (1925 - 1931)

3. Legal Reforms

Abolishment of the Canon Law (1924 - 1937)

Transfer to a secular law structure by adoption of Turkish Civil Code and other laws (1924 - 1937)

4. Reforms in the fields of education and culture

Unification of education (3 March 1924)

Adoption of new Turkish alphabet (1 November 1928)

Establishment of Turkish Language and History Institutions (1931 - 1932)

Regulation of the university education (31 May 1933)

Innovations in fine arts

5. Economic Reforms

Abolution of tithe

Encouragement of the farmers

Establishment of model farms




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