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Mustafa Kemal AtatÐ"јrk

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Mustafa Kemal AtatÐ"јrk


1st President of Turkey

In office

October 29, 1923 Ð'- November 10, 1938

Succeeded by Ð"Ñœsmet Ð"ÑœnÐ"¶nÐ"ј


1st Prime Minister of Turkey

In office

3 May 1920 Ð'- 24 January 1921

Succeeded by Fevzi Ð"‡akmak


1rd Speaker of the Parliament of Turkey

In office

1920 Ð'- 1923

Succeeded by Ali Fethi Okyar


1rd Leader

of the Republican People's Party

In office

1921 Ð'- 1938

Succeeded by Ali Fethi Okyar


Born 1881

SelÐ"Ñžnik (Thessaloniki)

Died November 10, 1938

DolmabahÐ"§e Palace, Istanbul

Political party Republican People's Party

Spouse Latife UÐ"Ñ*aklÐ"Ð...gil (1923-1925)

Mustafa Kemal AtatÐ"јrk (1881Ð'-November 10, 1938), until November 24, 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionary statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal established himself as a successful military commander while serving as a division commander in the Battle of Gallipoli. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire at the hands of the Allies, and the subsequent plans for its partition, Mustafa Kemal led the Turkish national movement in what would become the Turkish War of Independence. His successful military campaigns led to the liberation of the country and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. As the Republic's first president, Mustafa Kemal introduced a range of far-reaching reforms which sought to create a modern, democratic and secular state. According to the Law on Family Names, the Turkish National Assembly presented Mustafa Kemal with the surname "AtatÐ"јrk" (meaning "Father Turk" or "Ancestor Turk") on November 24, 1934.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Military career in World War I

2.1 Gallipoli (Gelibolu)

2.2 Final WWI years

2.3 Turkish Independence

3 Post-war life and reforms

3.1 Reforms

3.2 Political consolidation

3.3 Culture and the arts

3.4 International relations

4 Family and personal life

5 Last days

6 Legacy

6.1 Worldwide

7 Images of AtatÐ"јrk

8 Media

9 See also

10 Notes

11 References

12 External links

Early life

AtatÐ"јrk on the cover of TIME magazine, the title reads "Where is a Turk his own master?". March 24, 1923AtatÐ"јrk was born in 1881, in the Ottoman city of SelÐ"Ñžnik (Thessaloniki in present day Greece), the son of a minor official who became a timber merchant. In accordance with the then prevalent Turkish custom, he was given a single name, Mustafa. His father, Ali RÐ"Ð Efendi, was a customs officer who died when Mustafa Kemal was seven and it was left to his mother ZÐ"јbeyde HanÐ"Ð...m, to raise the young Mustafa.

When AtatÐ"јrk was 12 years old, he went to military schools in SelÐ"Ñžnik and ManastÐ"Ð...r (now Bitola, Republic of Macedonia), centres of Greek discontent towards the Ottoman administration. Mustafa studied at the military secondary school in SelÐ"Ñžnik, where the additional name Kemal ("perfection" or "maturity", not an uncommon name) was given to him by his mathematics teacher in recognition of his academic excellence. Mustafa Kemal entered the military academy at ManastÐ"Ð...r in 1895. He graduated as a lieutenant in 1905 and was posted to Damascus under the command of the 5th Army. In Damascus, he soon joined a small secret revolutionary society of reform-minded officers called Vatan ve HÐ"јrriyet (Motherland and Liberty) and became an active opponent of the Ottoman regime. In 1907, he attained the rank of captain and was posted to the 3rd Army in ManastÐ"Ð...r (Bitola in present day Republic of Macedonia). During this period he joined the Committee of Union and Progress, commonly known as the Young Turks. The Young Turks seized power from the Sultan Ð''Abdu'l-Hamid II in 1908, and Mustafa Kemal became a senior military figure.

In 1910, he took part in the Picardie army manoeuvers in France, and in 1911, he served at the Ministry



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