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Animal Rights

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Animal Rights

1) Animal rights are the movement to protect animals from being used or regarded as property by human beings.

2) I believe animals should be treated humanely. Similar rights are fair. I do not believe that animals should have the same rights as humans because we are not equals.

3) Animals should be used for experimentation for the advancement of medical knowledge, learn about biological systems and the illnesses that afflict humans and other animals.

4) What I consider to be animal experimentation is toxicity testing, education and training, and basic or applied research for the well being of both humans and animals alike. I would include humans as part of animal experimentation.

5) I believe animal experimentation should be permitted because it gives us many solutions for horrible/fatal diseases that otherwise never be found. The sacrifice of animals bred for research is something that needs to be done for mankind.

6) Yes, animals benefit from animal experimentation. What is learned through research on one particular animal can be applied to help animals like it that may be infected with similar irregularities, and then be saved.

7) Yes, I think that humans benefit from animal experimentation. What is learned through research of animals can be applied to help/save humans that are experiencing similar disease. Medication that is tested on animals can save a person that might have been the first to consume this possibly harmful medication.

The Skeletal System

1) Cartilage, bones, blood cells, fibrous connective tissue, tendons, ligaments, support tissue, nervous tissue, muscle tissue, and epithelial tissue are the organs and tissues included in the skeletal system.

2) The three types of connective tissue are bones, the hard elements of the skeleton, Ligaments, dense fibrous connective tissue that binds bones together, and cartilage that consists of collagen and elastic fluid called ground substance.

3) The five functions of the skeletal system are Protection-encases internal organs, Support- allows body positions, Permit movement- muscle attachments for moving, Mineral Reservoir- calcium/phosphorus, and Blood production.

4) Two types of bones are long, which are greater in length than width and short, which have square tarsals and carpals.

5) The development of long bone growth consists of cartilage forming in the fetus, compact bone develops starting at primary ossification site, then spongy bone develops at secondary ossification sites during childhood, followed by the growth plates promoting longitudinal growth until adolescence.

6) Bone remodeling is when stress on a bone causes electrical currents within the bone that stimulate bone-forming activity of osteoblasts. New bone is laid down in regions under high compressive stress and bone is reabsorbed in areas of low compressive stress.

7) Bone is repaired by producing hematoma, then fibroblasts migrate to the area. Some of the fibroblasts become chondroblasts, and the produce a callus between the two ends of the broken bone. The callus eventually turns into actual bone.

8) The Axial skeleton is made up of the vertebral column, regions, intervertebral disks, 12 pairs of ribs bottom 2 pair are floating, the sternum.

9) The Appendicular skeleton is made up of the pectoral girdle, clavicle, pelvic girdles, coxal bones, and limbs (arms and legs).

10) Joints are the points of contact between bones.

11) The purpose of joints is to enable our bones to move freely, cushion, and lubricate.

12) Ligaments and tendons stabilize the joint. Muscle contraction increases the tension of the tendons tightening and strengthening the joint.

13) There are multiple types of joints in the body. Fibrous joints that are immovable, cartilaginous joints which are slightly moveable, and synovial joints which are the most freely movable joints. Synovial joints include hinge joints and ball and socket joints.

14) Synovial joints make movements similar to a hinge on a door, hence hinge joint and rotation by the ball and socket joint.

15) Opposable thumbs are unique because humans are the only animals that possess them and they make it possible to pick up and grasp objects securely.

16) Two things two help prevent osteoporosis is to be sure that your calcium intake is 1000-1500mg per day and regularly exercise.

17) Types of arthritis are osteoarthritis which happens when the cartilage on the end of the bones wears out, Rheumatoid arthritis also involves joint inflammation but this is caused by the body's own immune system.

The Muscular System

1) The three types of muscles are the Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth. The Skeletal muscles are attached to and covers bony skeleton, can be controlled voluntarily, contract rapidly but tires easily, and responsible for body mobility and interacting with the environment. Cardiac- Heart only, striated but not voluntary, and contract at a steady rate.

Smooth muscles are the walls of hollow visceral organs, nonstriated and involuntary.

2) Involuntary muscles have the ability to perform the task without you thinking about it. While voluntary muscles contract controlled by or subject to individual volition.

3) The key functions of muscles are Contraction, Heat production, Maintaining posture, and joint stabilization.

4) Excitability/irritability- ability to receive and react to stimulus, Contractility- ability to shorten forcibly when stimulated, Extensibility- ability to be stretched or extended, and Elasticity- the ability for muscle fibers to recoil and resume there resting length after being stretched.

5) The contractile unit of a muscle makes it possible to shorten forcibly when adequately stimulated; this sets muscle tissue apart from other tissues.

6) Actin and myosin come together, this is called Sliding Filament. They cross each other at the midline.

7) Neurotransmitters are Endogenous signaling molecules that alter the behavior of neurons or effector cells

8) Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter plays an important role in muscle contraction.

9) Magnesium plays an important role in muscle contraction.

10) Sacromere



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