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16 Century History

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Textbook Assignment, Chapter 28:

( Define)

1.Iron Curtain: Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West. (p.658)

2.Cold War (1945-1991) The ideological struggle between communist (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world influence. The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile

crisis but never attacked one another. The Cold War came to an end when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. (p.668)

3.NATO: an organization formed in Washington, D.C. (1949), comprising the 12 nations of the Atlantic Pact together with Greece, Turkey, and the Federal Republic of Germany, for the purpose of collective defense against aggression.

4.United Nations: an international organization, with headquarters in New York City, formed to promote international peace, security, and cooperation under the terms of the charter signed by 51 founding countries in San Francisco in 1945.

5.World Bank: an international bank established in 1944 to help member nations reconstruct and develop, esp. by guaranteeing loans: a specialized agency of the United Nations.

6.Marshall Plan: a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II, proposed by U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall in 1947 and implemented in 1948 under the Economic Cooperation Administration.

7.Truman Doctrine: the policy of President Truman, as advocated in his address to Congress on March 12, 1947, to provide military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey and, by extension, to any country threatened by Communism or any totalitarian ideology.

8.Warsaw Pact: an organization formed in Warsaw, Poland (1955), comprising Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the U.S.S.R., for collective defense under a joint military command.

9.Korean War: the war, begun on June 25, 1950, between North Korea, aided by Communist China, and South Korea, aided by the United States and other United Nations members forming a United Nations armed force: truce signed July 27, 1953.

10.Vietnam War:a conflict, starting in 1954 and ending in 1975, between South Vietnam (later aided by the U.S., South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, Thailand, and New Zealand) and the Vietcong and North Vietnam.

11.Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962:A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the "hottest" periods of the cold war. The Soviet premier, Nikita Khrushchev, placed Soviet military missiles in Cuba, which had come under Soviet influence since the success of the Cuban Revolution three years earlier. President John F. Kennedy of the United States set up a naval blockade of Cuba and insisted that Khrushchev remove the missiles. Khrushchev did.

12.Third World:the underdeveloped nations of the world, esp. those with widespread poverty.

13.Cultural Revolution:a radical sociopolitical movement in China c1966-71, led by Mao Zedong and characterized by military rule, terrorism, purges, restructuring of the educational system, etc. Compare Gang of Four, Red Guard.

14.OPEC:an organization founded in 1960 of nations that export large amounts of petroleum: formed to establish oil-exporting policies and set prices.

Textbook Assignment, Chapter 29:

( Define )

1.Proxy Wars:A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly

2.Sandinistas:a member of the Nicaraguan revolutionary movement that took control of Nicaragua in 1979.

3.Ayatollah:a title in the religious hierarchy achieved by scholars who have demonstrated highly advanced knowledge of Islamic law and religion.

4.Saddam Husayn: (Arabic: , ; born April 28, 1937), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003, when he was deposed during the United States-led invasion of Iraq.



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