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What Are Some of the Different Types of Kidney Stones?

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Autor:   •  December 25, 2010  •  Study Guide  •  348 Words (2 Pages)  •  506 Views

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What are some of the different types of kidney stones?

A kidney stone develops from crystals that separate from urine and build up on the inner surfaces of the kidney. Normally, urine contains chemicals that prevent or inhibit the crystals from forming, however, in some people, stones still become formed. Crystals that remain small enough will travel through the urinary tract and pass out of the body in the urine without even being noticed.

* calcium stones

Calcium stones are the most common type of stones. Calcium is a normal part of a healthy diet and is used by bones and muscles. Calcium not used by the body goes to the kidneys where it is normally flushed out with the rest of the urine. In some people, however, the calcium that stays behind joins with other waste products to form a stone.

* struvite stones

Struvite stones are a type of stone that contains the mineral magnesium and the waste product ammonia. It may form after an infection in the urinary system.

* uric acid stones

Uric acid stones may form when there is too much acid in the urine.

* cystine stones

Cystine stones consist of cystine, one of the building blocks that make up muscles, nerves, and other parts of the body, can build up in the urine and form a stone. Cystine stones are rare. The disease that causes cystine stones (cystinosis) runs in families

Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones - these two types are the most common, accounting for about 80% of cases. These kidney stones usually form when--for any one of a number of reasons--the concentration of calcium or other minerals in the urine becomes too high, which in turn leads to formation of crystals and with time small, hard masses. Possible causes include:

* Inherited conditions that cause the kidney to retain calcium or oxalate.

* A bowel condition that causes the body to absorb too much calcium.

* A malfunctioning parathyroid gland that disrupts the kidneys' ability to get rid of excess calcium.

* Renal tubular acidosis, a kidney condition that makes the urine more acidic. Kidney stones form more easily in acidic


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