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Autor: reviewessays • September 29, 2010 • Essay • 695 Words (3 Pages) • 508 Views
Schizophrenia: Bleuler and Kraepelin
Schizophrenia is a complex syndrome characterized by cognitive and emotional dysfunctions including delusions and hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, and inappropriate emotions. Since there is no cure to this disorder, clinicians rely on the DSM IV to differentiate between symptoms. The symptoms of the disorder can disrupt a person's perception, thought, speech, and movement in almost every aspect of daily functions. Mental health clinicians distinguish between positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms. Positive symptoms include active manifestations of abnormal behavior, which hallucinations and delusions fall in. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are alogia and avolition. Rambling speech, erratic behavior, and inappropriate affect are some of the symptoms that are outlined under the disorganized content. The foundations of schizophrenia lye within two noted psychologist by name of Eugen Bleuler and Emil kraepelin.
Emil Kraepelin first combined several symptoms of insanity that had previously been separated in its own distinct disorder. The first symptom of insanity is catatonia, which is an alternate immobility and excited agitation. Hebephrenia is the second symptom, which details silly immaturity and emotionality. The third symptom of insanity developed by Kraepelin is paranoia, defined as delusions of grandeur and persecution. All three are unified together by the term dementia praecox. Kraepelin believed that an early onset at the heart of each disorder ultimately developed into "mental weakness." Stating that once or when a person is experiencing or expressing symptoms of a disorder, a trial or obstacle may push an individual to the limit; that thin line between the sane and insane. Dementia praecox was distinguished from manic-dpressive illness (bipolar disorder) in a second study administered by Kraepelin. Kraepelin's influence and accomplishments made him the first great pioneer in the description and study of schizophrenia. His classification of disorders also served as a foundation for the DSM and ICD.
The second great pioneer of Schizophrenia is a Swiss psychiatrist by the name of Eugen Bleuler, who just happens to be Kraepelin's contemporary. Bleuler introduced the term schizophrenia to the world in 1908. Schizophrenia, which comes from the combination of the Greek words for split (skhizein) and mind (phren), reflected Bleuler's emphasis on the destruction of the forces that connect one function to the next. He called this theory associative splitting; yet do not misinterpret the concept of " split mind " with the term schizophrenia to mean split or multiple personality, because that is defining another cognitive disorder. Bleuler believed that difficulty between maintaining a train of thought