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Autor: reviewessays • December 21, 2010 • Research Paper • 1,940 Words (8 Pages) • 795 Views
In the initial stage of group development, members begin to develop their relationship with one another and learn what is expected of them. Group members rely on safe, patterned behaviour and look to the group leader for guidance and direction. Group members have a desire for acceptance by the group and a need to be known that the group is safe (Corey, 1995). They set about gathering impressions and data about the similarities and differences among them and forming preferences for future subgrouping. Rules of behaviour seem to be to keep things simple and to avoid controversy. Serious topics and feelings are avoided.
The major task functions also concern orientation. Members attempt to become oriented to the tasks as well as to one another. Discussion centers around defining the scope of the task, how to approach it, and similar concerns. To grow from this stage to the next, each member must relinquish the comfort of non-threatening topics and risk the possibility of conflict.
The next stage, which is called the transition stage, is characterized by competition and conflict in the personal-relations dimension an organization in the task-functions dimension. As the group members attempt to organize for the task, conflict inevitably results in their personal relations. Although conflicts may or may not surface as group issues, they do exist. Questions will arise about who is going to be responsible for what, what the rules are, what the reward system is, and what criteria for evaluation are. These reflect conflicts over leadership, structure, power, and authority. There may be wide swings in members' behaviour based on emerging issues of competition and hostilities. Because of the discomfort generated during this stage, some members may remain completely silent while others attempt to dominate. It is important to work through the conflict at this time and to establish clear goals. It is necessary for there to be discussion so everyone feels heard and can come to an agreement on the direction the group is to move in (Corey, 1995).
In the working stage, interpersonal relations are characterized by cohesion. Group members are engaged in active acknowledgment of all members' contributions, community building and maintenance, and solving of group issues. Members are willing to change their preconceived ideas or opinions on the basis of facts presented by other members, and they actively ask questions of one another. When members begin to know-and identify with one another, the level of trust in their personal relations contributes to the development of group cohesion (Corey, 1995).
. It is during this stage of development (assuming the group gets this far) that people begin to experience a sense of group belonging and a feeling of relief as a result of resolving interpersonal conflicts.
The major task function of stage three is the data flow between group members: They share feelings and ideas, solicit and give feedback to one another, and explore actions related to the task. Creativity is high. If this stage of data flow and cohesion is attained by the group members, their interactions are characterized by openness and sharing of information on both a personal and task level. They feel good about being part of an effective group.
The major drawback of this stage is that members may begin to fear the inevitable future break-up of the group hence they may resist change of any sort.
If group members are able to evolve to stage four, their capacity, range, and depth of personal relations expand to true interdependence. In this stage, people can work independently, in subgroups, or as a total unit with equal facility. Their roles and authorities dynamically adjust to the changing needs of the group and individuals. Stage four is marked by interdependence in personal relations and problem solving in the realm of task functions. By now, the group should be most productive. Individual members have become self-assuring, and the need for group approval is past. Members are both highly task oriented and highly people oriented. There is unity: group identity is complete, group morale is high, and group loyalty is intense. The task function becomes genuine problem solving, leading toward optimal solutions and optimum group development. There is support for experimentation in solving problems and an emphasis on achievement. The overall goal is productivity through problem solving and work.
The final stage, consolidation, involves the termination of task behaviours and disengagement from relationships. A planned conclusion usually includes recognition for participation and achievement and an opportunity for members to say personal goodbyes (Corey, 1995). Concluding a group can create some apprehension - in effect, a minor crisis. The termination of the group is a regressive movement from giving up control to giving up inclusion in the group. The group will find that it can celebrate its accomplishments and that members will be learning new skills and sharing roles.
In the initial stage of group development, the leader should be inclusive and empowering. He/she should make sure that everyone connected to the group is involved Corey, 1995). Inclusive leadership should be modelled and diverse members and talents should be sought out. Common purposes and targets of change should be identified and the environment should be one that fosters trust and builds commitment to the group.
In the transitional stage, the leader should be ethical and open to other people's ideas. He/she should allow for differences of opinion to be discussed and conflict should be handled directly and civilly. Every attempt should be made to keep everyone focused on the purpose of the group and the topic of conflict (Corey, 1995). Personal attacks should be avoided and biases that may be blocking progress or preventing another member to be treated fairly should be examined.
New members should feel welcomed, informed, and involved by stage three; the working stage. The leader should continue to clarify his/her expectations of individuals in the group and engage in collaboration and teamwork (Corey, 1995).
Finally, the in the consolidation stage, accomplishments should be celebrated and renewal in relationships should be sought. Members of the group should be encouraged and empowered to learn new skills and to share roles that keep things fresh and exciting (Corey, 1995). At this point, leadership is viewed as shared and cliques have hopefully dissolved.
An increasingly important form of group therapy for addiction is based on the principles of cognitive therapy. Cognitive therapy addiction groups address understanding and changing