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Groups of people came together to build towns, cities, etc. People came to build their towns around lakes or rivers to utilize their resources. People found areas near the Danue River to grow crops, it was the majority of their food sources. In this area they gave the name Lepenski Vir. The roofs were made by animal skins, arranged to make maximum use of the sun. Everything was oriented of the alter. This God was a human head made and also resembled a fish. It was dated at about 6000 B.C. They moved to the river vallies because they needed richer soil, because they needed more food to sustain themselves. We called these "dependent on water to grow crops." In order to do this they needed some type of government to be sure that everything ran properly.
Three river valleys were: Tiger Euphretes, Nile, and Vulga Deneeper
Tigris and Euphrates (Mesopotamia, Plane of Shanour, Babylonia)- Region was settled very early. One of the place names that we hear about was Eden or the Garden of Eden. Semitic people were the first group of people to settle this region. Also called the Ubadians. Lived at the mouth of the Tigris Euphrates. Ubadians who were a Semerian tribe and the beginning of the bible in Genesis, Eve and Adam, and the story of the Flood. Ubadians are a tribe connected with the Semerian people. Come into the area and establish city states along the Tigris and Euphrates river and the Palenstine. Jews, Arabs, Hebrews, were all tribes of the Semantic people. Problem with this land was that you were open to attacks. Most important thing was growing crops. Tribes also developed religion. They believed that people came from the earth and later developed concrete perception of God, who was their protector. Thought to be mountain gods. They built temple complex in these towns (tower), represents a mountain so that the god would feel at home (step pyramids). Raised goat cattle and sheep. Bronze aged people (main material used for weapons and tools, etc.) Homes are made of brick, two stories high, indoor bathrooms, chariots for ceromonies and war. Had oxen to pull the chariots. They traded and had a trade route. They had to develop a written language. A pictographic (uses picture to represent words) style of writing called Cuneiform. They kept their records on clay tablets hardened by fiber, most dealing with business. The bankers were the priests. The religious leaders ran the towns, led by a King Priest, who combined civil and religious authority. They developed a calendar based on the moon. Years were not numbered, usually named upon a flood, famine, etc. The word sheckle (penny) was made. Was based on six. Because of this, early math was based on sixes. Semarian life revolved around the town, and town around religion. The Ziggeraut (pyramid) was the center. Gods were portrayed in human form, they fought with each other. They believed in demons. Based on Marduk. Principle God of Ur. Came after the Euphrates area was conquered. A king that is part god part human called the Epic of Gilgamish. Part based on the Great Flood and reads like Genesis and Noah. Great deal of these stories will be kept alive by the Hebrews and eventually becomes the Old Testament of the bible. Buried the dead under the floors of their home. They will develop over time the concept of an afterworld. Everything revolved around agricultural work. Often times city states and merge into small nations. Their militaries were very basic. They fought a tight falix.
Houses built with brick and mud dried in the sun. All the houses maximized the use of sunlight. Surrounded by a city wall. Field of weed stretched out in all directions outside of the wall. About 200,000 farmers lived in the city. A sacred zone in the center of the city separated by a wall. A temple was dedicated to the moon god, Nana. The king and priest offered gifts to the god.
The city states fight among themselves but are conquered by the Akkadians, Led by Sargon. He conquers much of the Fertile Cresent, because they have a advanced military. They have archers. After a while, they adopted the Semerian culture. Used the language, calendar, falancses. First to develop a helmet. Used Ur as their capitol, have schools. The children studied medicine and religion. Kingdom of Sumer and Akkad last for 2000 B.C. Captured Ur. The Amorites create the city of Babylon. Ruled for three hundred years. The ruler of the Amorites is Hammurabi. Best known for the touch of order that he gives. Demands that his governors collect taxes. Hammurabi established a set of laws for his kingdom called laws (code). Code refers to law. Oldest code known and had it carved on monuments. Code insists on justice to the widow, orphan, and the poor. Eye for an eye. Marriage was a legal agreement between a man and his wife. The position of women was high. Women could hold high positions within these city/states. The laws divided society into commoners, middle class, and slaves. The laws covered everything from criminal and social concepts. Babylonia was a commercial nation raising cattle and sheep. Bronze was still the main material used. Had a huge standing army. Merchants were powerful, carrying trade to different areas. Power rested in the temples, by the Priest King. Marduk continued as god. Imported a goddess
called Ishtar, later Aphrodites. Beginning of astrology. Temples ran the schools. Writing still on clay tablets. Babylonia lasts for about three hundred years and are broken up by the Cassites who brought the horse to the region. Assyrians are a Semetic group caught between war infactions. Related to the Amorites and have a similar culture and language and are caught between major wars. They develop a very powerful military force. They now have iron weapons. Developed a sophisticated military. First militaristic society and revolved around military and war. Chariots pulled by horses. When they were ready they came out of the Tigris and Euphrates regions and conquers it. Also conquered important people. Arameans were not fighters, but survivors and served them as their beareucrats.
Their language becomes the language to carry out the trade agreements. Principle city/state was Demascus. First people to begin an alphabetical style of writing. This alphabet, modified by the Phenesians, but is what we use today. Kept improving their weapons. They used archers, iron tipped arrows. Had about fifty thousand men in their army. Used terror and psychological warfare. Cut of the ears, etc. of everyone who resisted. They conquered Palenstine, the Kingdom of Israel, Babylon, and