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A World Lit Only By Fire Study Guide

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Category: History Other

Autor: reviewessays 28 February 2011

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A World Lit Only By Fire Summer Reading Test

Section 1: The Medieval Mind

1. Whose country was described as "the back of a horse?"

The Huns' country

2. Who declared he was "above grammar?"

Sigismund

3. Who invaded Rome in A.D. 410?

The Visigoths under the leadership of Alaric

4. Who was the last Roman emperor of the west?

Romulus Augustulus

5. What were the serfs' basic agricultural tools?

Picks, forks, spades, rakes, scythes, and balanced sickles

6. Why did outlaws flourish in the Hercynian Forest?

The were seldom pursued

7. What replaced Rome as the imperial fixer of European frontiers?

Constantinople

8. What is the Nicene Creed?

The Creed that Constantine set up for his theology

9. What was the first great work to shape and define the medieval mind?

De civitate Dei

10. What did Canossa symbolize?

Secular submission

11. When did the designation of saints emerge?

Second and third centuries after Christ

12. Why did Leo III become a very unpopular emperor?

He issued a Draconian act in 726

13. From where did the name exchequer emerge?

Royal treasury officials were so uneducated they used a checkered cloth for doing sums

14. What was the lowest title of the aristocratic order?

Knight

15. Why were proclamations from the Holy See called bulls?

Bulla, a leaden seal which made them official

16. Why was the papacy moved to Avignon in 1305?

Italian disorders and a campaign to outlaw the Catholic Knights Templar

17. Why do we know nothing of the architects and builders of Chartres or Canterbury?

They were glorifying God. To them their identity in this life was irrelevant

18. What was the Great Schism?

The period in the Church where there were multiple popes, or antipopes, at one time

19. When did the Renaissance begin?

Early 1400s

Section 2: The Shattering

1. Who was the next explorer to successfully navigate the Straits of Magellan after Magellan?

Sir Francis Drake

2. What was the policy of Spain toward Jews beginning 1492?

Give them 3 months to accept Christian baptism or be banished from the country

3. What was the most celebrated crime of the Middle Ages?

Murdering the heirs of royal thrones to become king

4. According to Manchester, at any given moment the most dangerous enemy in Europe was who?

The reigning pope

5. Who said "God has given us the papacy. Let us enjoy it?"

Leo X

6. What scriptural precedent did the Church use to justify the sale of indulgences?

Matthew 16:19. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

7. When did the Church establish rules of celibacy for the clergy?

1123 and 1139

8. Who conspired to murder Lorenzo de Medici?

Pope Sixtus IV and the Pazzi family

10. What were the three largest European cities in 1500?

Paris, Naples, and Venice

11. Why were there no correctional facilities in the sixteenth century?

Sixteenth-century men did not believe that criminal characters could be reformed or corrected

12. Who are the Fuggers?

A family that became wealthy as moneylenders

13. How large was the average man of the time?

135 pounds and 5 feet tall

14. What was the life expectancy for the peasants of Europe in the 16th century?

Most were expected not to live past 30-40

15. What were the required uniforms for lepers, prostitutes, and Jews?

Lepers: They had to have clappers to warn people that he/she is coming

Jews: Yellow round patch on one's breast

Prostitutes: Distinctive colored hoods and skirts

16. What substituted for prison terms at the time?

Pilgrimages to holy places such as Rome or Jerusalem

17. Why was Castile unique for travelers?

It was guarded by archers

18. Who was the model for Machiavelli's The Prince?

Cesare Borgia

19. What was the fate of Giordano Bruno?

He was burned at the stake

20. Who described earthly life as "nasty, brutish, and short?"

Thomas Hobbes

21. Who was the star of the typographical revolution?

Johannes Gutenburg

22. What were the trivuim and quadrivium?

Trivium: grammar, rhetoric, and dialectics

Quadrivium: astronomy, arithmetic, geometry, and music

23. How was Machiavelli been misinterpreted by history?

Later generations that have read his books interpreted Machiavelli's work as cynical, unscrupulous and immoral; they have turned his very name to a pejorative

24. What event gave impetus to the revival of Greek learning?

Fall of Constantinople

25. What was described "as profitable as milking a he-goater into a sieve?"

Exploring subtleties of scholasticism

26. What two threats did Martin Luther believe humanism posed to the Church?

Reason is the greatest enemy that faith has; it struggles against the divine world, treating with contempt all the emanates from God.

The second treat was inherent in the medieval Church's preoccupation with the afterlife

27. What was the occupation of Erasmus' father?

Priest

28. What was Erasmus' extraordinary talent?

Making men laugh at the outrageous

29. Who was "the warrior pope?"

Julius II

30. What was the spark that ignited the Reformation?

Selling of indulgences

31. Who was Johann Tetzel?

German Dominican friar that sold indulgences in the 16th century

32. What language did Martin Luther virtually create?

New High German

33. Where did Martin Luther conceive the doctrine of justification by faith?

The Bible

34. How long would it take to travel from Venice to London in the 16th century? To Constantinople? To Lisbon?

London: 27 days

Constantinople: 37 days

Lisbon: 46 days

35. How did Luther escape Augsburg in 1518?

Luther was bundled out a side door, concealed in a farmer's cart, a and hurried out of the city

36. Name four Germans martyred for challenging the authority of the Church prior to Martin Luther.

Johan von Wesel of Erfurt, John and Lewin of Augsburg, and Wessel Gansfort

37. What position marked Luther as "an unshriven, unrepentant apostate?"

The pope

38. Who elected the Holy Roman Emperor?

The seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire

39. Which two German universities did not remain loyal to the Church?

Wittenburg and Erfurt

40. How did Martin Luther exploit the spirit of Herrenvolk?

He raised the spirit by writing in mass numbers not in Latin, but in German

41. To what was Martin Luther referring when he said "we here come to the heart of the matter?"

Indulgences, Catholic things that exploited the German people.

42. What did Erasmus reply were Martin Luther's two major blunders?

He attacked the popes in their crowns and the monks in their bellies

43. What did Martin Luther offer to recant to the Diet of Worms?

Nothing

44. What was "the greatest moment in the modern history of man" according to Thomas Carlyle?

Luther saying "Hier stehe Ich, Ich kann nicht anders." ("Here I stand. I can do no other")

45. What was the most popular Protestant dogma of the 16th century?

Predestination

46. What was the Zwickau Dogma?

Belief that God spoke directly to simple men in simple language, that they instinctively understood him, and that the true Christian spurned literature, even reading and writing.

47. Who wrote "I do not admit that my doctrine can be judged by anyone, even the angels?"

Desiderius Erasmus

48. Who laid the egg that Luther hatched?

Erasmus

49. What became known as the Protestant Rome?

The city-state of GenГ©ve

50. Why was abortion not a political issue for John Calvin?

Any single woman discovered with child was drowned

51. Who was the only Dutch pope in history?

Adrian VI

52. Who turned the Vatican into a stable?

The soldiers who had taken over the Vatican

53. What is the meaning of Manchester's title to the book?

The punishment of the burning of the stake. Other punishments include torture, drawing and quartering, the noose, and the ax

54. What became the basis for the King James Version of the Bible?

Tyndale's translation of the bible

55. Who was the "Defender of the Faith?"

King Henry VIII

56. How did theologians regard Henry's argument for annulment?

They disregarded it and did not allow make Henry's marriage void

57. What was the Act of Succession of 1534?

Parliament decided the heir to the Crown of England from the children of King Henry VIII. The Act made Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn, the true successor to the Crown by declaring Princess Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon, a bastard.

58. What percentage of land did the Church own in England?

20% of the land was owned by the Catholic Church

59. Who was the "king's good servant, but God's first?"

Thomas More

60. Name three famous English martyrs during the reign of Mary I.

Archbishop Cranmer. Bishops Ridley and Latimer

Section 3: One Man Alone

1. What destroyed the Renaissance, according to Manchester?

Shattering of the medieval word, the Protestant Reformation

2. What introduced the modern age, according to Manchester?

Magellan's voyage around the world

3. What three main arteries were used for good from Asia until about 1300?

Overland, on caravan roads across northern China and central Asia to the shores of the Black Sea

Other 2 reached the Middle East via the Indian Ocean

4. Who was Prince Henry the Navigator?

Prince who did little navigating but sponsored voyages of discovery, encouraged seaborne commerce, developed the sailing vessel known as the Portuguese caravel, and designed a grand strategy to outflank Islamic power by establishing contact, firs t with Africa south of the Sahara, and then with the Orient.

5. Who were rutters?

Records that included a detailed, step-by-step chronicle of the journey out and the journey back.

6. How did Balboa better his predecessors?

He was able to cross the Panama Isthmus and reach the Pacific Ocean while his predecessors that landed there couldn't

7. What was the Treaty of Tordesillas?

The Treaty that drew the line of demarcation 270 leagues farther west

8. When did Madrid become the capital of Spain?

1561

9. What was the name of Magellan's flagship?

Trinidad

10. Why didn't Magellan take the most direct route to Brazil?

Manuel of Portugal had sent two flotillas to intercept him

11. What happened April 2, 1520?

The other crew members mutinied against Magellan

12. Why did Magellan call the islands of the Straits of Magellan Tierra del Fuego?

The shivering Indians how lived there warmed themselves over perpetual fires. Terra del Fuego means Land of Fire

13. Why did Magellan burst into tears in November of 1520?

He had finally discovered the strait that leads to the other side of the world and found the Pacific Ocean

14. Who was the first person to circumnavigate the globe?

The slave Enrique, who originated in the Malayas in which he returned

15. By what was Magellan gripped in the Philippines?

The war for rajah Datu Humabon

16. What happened to Magellan's body?

His body was unable to be found. An explanation was that he was literally torn apart by the Indians

17. Why was it ironic that Cano was the captain of the expedition when it returned to Spain?

Cano was one of the leaders in the mutiny

18. How many men completed the expedition?

18

19. Who was celebrated as the hero of the expedition for circumnavigation the globe?

Cano

20. What problem was discovered with the ship's logs?

The logs that contained the truth were not revealed to the public for quite some time because Cano kept a copy