SchizophreniaThis print version free essay Schizophrenia.
Autor: reviewessays 29 September 2010
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Schizophrenia: Bleuler and Kraepelin
Schizophrenia is a complex syndrome characterized by cognitive and emotional dysfunctions including delusions and hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, and inappropriate emotions. Since there is no cure to this disorder, clinicians rely on the DSM IV to differentiate between symptoms. The symptoms of the disorder can disrupt a personâ€™s perception, thought, speech, and movement in almost every aspect of daily functions. Mental health clinicians distinguish between positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms. Positive symptoms include active manifestations of abnormal behavior, which hallucinations and delusions fall in. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are alogia and avolition. Rambling speech, erratic behavior, and inappropriate affect are some of the symptoms that are outlined under the disorganized content. The foundations of schizophrenia lye within two noted psychologist by name of Eugen Bleuler and Emil kraepelin.
Emil Kraepelin first combined several symptoms of insanity that had previously been separated in its own distinct disorder. The first symptom of insanity is catatonia, which is an alternate immobility and excited agitation. Hebephrenia is the second symptom, which details silly immaturity and emotionality. The third symptom of insanity developed by Kraepelin is paranoia, defined as delusions of grandeur and persecution. All three are unified together by the term dementia praecox. Kraepelin believed that an early onset at the heart of each disorder ultimately developed into â€œmental weakness.â€ Stating that once or when a person is experiencing or expressing symptoms of a disorder, a trial or obstacle may push an individual to the limit; that thin line between the sane and insane. Dementia praecox was distinguished from manic-dpressive illness (bipolar disorder) in a second study administered by Kraepelin. Kraepelinâ€™s influence and accomplishments made him the first great pioneer in the description and study of schizophrenia. His classification of disorders also served as a foundation for the DSM and ICD.
The second great pioneer of Schizophrenia is a Swiss psychiatrist by the name of Eugen Bleuler, who just happens to be Kraepelinâ€™s contemporary. Bleuler introduced the term schizophrenia to the world in 1908. Schizophrenia, which comes from the combination of the Greek words for split (skhizein) and mind (phren), reflected Bleulerâ€™s emphasis on the destruction of the forces that connect one function to the next. He called this theory associative splitting; yet do not misinterpret the concept of â€œ split mind â€œ with the term schizophrenia to mean split or multiple personality, because that is defining another cognitive disorder. Bleuler believed that difficulty between maintaining a train of thought led to diverse symptoms persons with the disorder displayed.
As the continuing struggle for the cure for schizophrenia persists, researchers have gained a great deal of knowledge in treating patients with the disorder. In the 1950s, there was a breakthrough in the treatment for schist patients. Neuroleptic drugs, such as anti-psychotics are effective for approximately 60% of the patients who take them. Finding the right drug for the patient depends strictly on trial and error. This can take months and even years, sometimes leaving patients searching endlessly for that effective drug. Other treatment programs include: acupuncture, herbal remedies, imprisonment, and even confinement have been used to treat the mentally ill in other countries. Here in America, we rely on counseling programs and medications for the well being of the mentally ill.
Since there is no cure for schizophrenia, the government and many researchers spend billions each year for treatment programs. In 1991, alone the cost of care of patients was estimated to be $65 billion dollars. Generally, African- Americans have received the diagnosis more so than whites in the U.S. One out of every one hundred people in their lives will experience some form of schist activity in their life. The life expectancy is slightly less than average, partly due because of the suicides and accidents among people with the illness. Leading researchers to believe that environmental influences have the most affect on those with the disorder.
Within the role of developing symptoms of schizophrenia, many things come into play. Multiple disorders make up the diagnosis of schizophrenia, making the disorder complex and unclear. Kraepelin and Bleuler opened the door, and we must keep forward and accurately identify possible improvements that can be met in the study of schizophrenia.