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Autor: reviewessays 17 February 2011

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European Civilization:

Groups of people came together to build towns, cities, etc. People came to build their towns around lakes or rivers to utilize their resources. People found areas near the Danue River to grow crops, it was the majority of their food sources. In this area they gave the name Lepenski Vir. The roofs were made by animal skins, arranged to make maximum use of the sun. Everything was oriented of the alter. This God was a human head made and also resembled a fish. It was dated at about 6000 B.C. They moved to the river vallies because they needed richer soil, because they needed more food to sustain themselves. We called these "dependent on water to grow crops." In order to do this they needed some type of government to be sure that everything ran properly.

Three river valleys were: Tiger Euphretes, Nile, and Vulga Deneeper

Tigris and Euphrates (Mesopotamia, Plane of Shanour, Babylonia)- Region was settled very early. One of the place names that we hear about was Eden or the Garden of Eden. Semitic people were the first group of people to settle this region. Also called the Ubadians. Lived at the mouth of the Tigris Euphrates. Ubadians who were a Semerian tribe and the beginning of the bible in Genesis, Eve and Adam, and the story of the Flood. Ubadians are a tribe connected with the Semerian people. Come into the area and establish city states along the Tigris and Euphrates river and the Palenstine. Jews, Arabs, Hebrews, were all tribes of the Semantic people. Problem with this land was that you were open to attacks. Most important thing was growing crops. Tribes also developed religion. They believed that people came from the earth and later developed concrete perception of God, who was their protector. Thought to be mountain gods. They built temple complex in these towns (tower), represents a mountain so that the god would feel at home (step pyramids). Raised goat cattle and sheep. Bronze aged people (main material used for weapons and tools, etc.) Homes are made of brick, two stories high, indoor bathrooms, chariots for ceromonies and war. Had oxen to pull the chariots. They traded and had a trade route. They had to develop a written language. A pictographic (uses picture to represent words) style of writing called Cuneiform. They kept their records on clay tablets hardened by fiber, most dealing with business. The bankers were the priests. The religious leaders ran the towns, led by a King Priest, who combined civil and religious authority. They developed a calendar based on the moon. Years were not numbered, usually named upon a flood, famine, etc. The word sheckle (penny) was made. Was based on six. Because of this, early math was based on sixes. Semarian life revolved around the town, and town around religion. The Ziggeraut (pyramid) was the center. Gods were portrayed in human form, they fought with each other. They believed in demons. Based on Marduk. Principle God of Ur. Came after the Euphrates area was conquered. A king that is part god part human called the Epic of Gilgamish. Part based on the Great Flood and reads like Genesis and Noah. Great deal of these stories will be kept alive by the Hebrews and eventually becomes the Old Testament of the bible. Buried the dead under the floors of their home. They will develop over time the concept of an afterworld. Everything revolved around agricultural work. Often times city states and merge into small nations. Their militaries were very basic. They fought a tight falix.

Video: Ur

Houses built with brick and mud dried in the sun. All the houses maximized the use of sunlight. Surrounded by a city wall. Field of weed stretched out in all directions outside of the wall. About 200,000 farmers lived in the city. A sacred zone in the center of the city separated by a wall. A temple was dedicated to the moon god, Nana. The king and priest offered gifts to the god.

Classroom Notes:

The city states fight among themselves but are conquered by the Akkadians, Led by Sargon. He conquers much of the Fertile Cresent, because they have a advanced military. They have archers. After a while, they adopted the Semerian culture. Used the language, calendar, falancses. First to develop a helmet. Used Ur as their capitol, have schools. The children studied medicine and religion. Kingdom of Sumer and Akkad last for 2000 B.C. Captured Ur. The Amorites create the city of Babylon. Ruled for three hundred years. The ruler of the Amorites is Hammurabi. Best known for the touch of order that he gives. Demands that his governors collect taxes. Hammurabi established a set of laws for his kingdom called laws (code). Code refers to law. Oldest code known and had it carved on monuments. Code insists on justice to the widow, orphan, and the poor. Eye for an eye. Marriage was a legal agreement between a man and his wife. The position of women was high. Women could hold high positions within these city/states. The laws divided society into commoners, middle class, and slaves. The laws covered everything from criminal and social concepts. Babylonia was a commercial nation raising cattle and sheep. Bronze was still the main material used. Had a huge standing army. Merchants were powerful, carrying trade to different areas. Power rested in the temples, by the Priest King. Marduk continued as god. Imported a goddess

called Ishtar, later Aphrodites. Beginning of astrology. Temples ran the schools. Writing still on clay tablets. Babylonia lasts for about three hundred years and are broken up by the Cassites who brought the horse to the region. Assyrians are a Semetic group caught between war infactions. Related to the Amorites and have a similar culture and language and are caught between major wars. They develop a very powerful military force. They now have iron weapons. Developed a sophisticated military. First militaristic society and revolved around military and war. Chariots pulled by horses. When they were ready they came out of the Tigris and Euphrates regions and conquers it. Also conquered important people. Arameans were not fighters, but survivors and served them as their beareucrats.

Their language becomes the language to carry out the trade agreements. Principle city/state was Demascus. First people to begin an alphabetical style of writing. This alphabet, modified by the Phenesians, but is what we use today. Kept improving their weapons. They used archers, iron tipped arrows. Had about fifty thousand men in their army. Used terror and psychological warfare. Cut of the ears, etc. of everyone who resisted. They conquered Palenstine, the Kingdom of Israel, Babylon, and captured Egypt. Culture based around their military. Their sculptures and paintings are boxlike, but their representations was almost perfect. The tigers and lions were astounding. Eventually their people gained allies from other Sumetic groups and they came in and destroyed the empire. The Chaldeans rebuilt the city of Babylon. Ruler was Nebuchadnezzar. Did not kill their enemies, but forced them into their kingdom. The Kingdom of Judah was conquered by the Chaldeans. Nebuchadnezzar rebuilds the temples, build a huge gateway leading into the city called the Ishtar Gate, construct a temple to Zegguraut. Brings in tropical plants and becomes the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. They adopt the architecture, god, etc. Studied the sky and learned of seven solar bodies. Attached a god to these seven solar planets. This gives us seven days of the week. Greatest astronomers in history. Kept it up for 350 years. They came up with the modern calendar. Chaldeans are the last great nation or empire of the Sumantic people. Ceased being progressive after Nebuchadnezzar died.


Sumetic people and nomads of the Arabian desert. Traveled with their goat and sheep, traced their leadership back to Abraham, who led the tribe near the city of Ur. The tribe splits into two parts. One groups moves to the Palenstine. The other group goes into the Arabian Peninsula. The group that goes to Palenstine are the Hebrews and the other are the Arabs. Both claim leadership back to Abraham. Both are broken into sub-tribes. Twelve of these sub-tribes move to Palenstine and find it already settled into Sumetic people. Have a hard time making it, so a large number of the migrate to Egypt. The Hebrews go to Egypt to be laborers, go into debt and lose their property and money. They then trade off their labor, and then made slaves. Seem to have been bonded servers in Egypt. Eventually leave Egypt by leadership of Moses. He organizes them and gives them a set of laws to live by, change their religion, strengthens them. Hebrews had a tribal mountain god, but he takes this concept of a tribal god and develops their religion, making it a more ethical religion, put forths the idea of a monotheist religion (one god). Gives them the concept of being God's chosen people. They return to Palenstine and Moses dies along the way. Their god's name is Jehova. They are now united and find other Hebrews and dominates them. Find that they are unable to gain major cities or properties to make a city. Phoenicians control Palenstine. Hebrews can't compete with them, so they settle in and intermarry among them. During this period the Hebrews are held together by religious leaders called judges. In 1100 BC, Palenstine are invaded by the Philistines, probably Greeks. Capture major cities. Hebrews and Cannanites fight together against the Philistines. David captures Jeruselem, and drive Philistines out of Palenstine. David begins the construction of a temple and finished by his son Solomon. Builds himself a huge palace. When he dies the Hebrews break into two kingdoms (Israel and Judah). 10 tribes Israel, 2 tribes Judah. They start to feud with each other. The rise of prophets, most famous being Amos and profits from the Southern Kingdom of Judah. Writings find their way into the bible. Israel is attacked by the Assyrians. Assyrians move on Jeruselem and disease sweeps through their army. Hebrews stay together in Babylon, led by the prophets. Serve the Chaldeans. Chaldeans conquered

by the Medes. Medes have a religion known as Zoroastrianism. Zoroastrianism is a one god religion, ethical, concept of heaven and hell, Satan, Angels. All come into the Hebrew religion. Hebrews are made part of the Persian Empire. They continue to develop their religion, Judaism. This religions remains and becomes the basis of Christianity. Phoenicians (Canninites) comes from the Greek word for purple. Purple Dye came from shellfish in the Mediterranean

s. First to migrate to Palenstine. Develop a modern Alphabet of twenty one signs. Symbols did not represent syllables. Each sign was a sound. The Phoenicians never formed a nation, but had city/states, most along the Palenstine coast. They were the first great sea going merchants of the western world, and handled the trade out of India. Great Sea farers of their age. They will serve larger empires (Chaldeans, Egyptians, Persians, etc.) Best known for exporting their purple dye, mainly shipped from Tyre and Sidon. Became the symbol of royalty or nobility. They worked closely with the Hebrews. Had a very blood thirsty religion initially. The bigger the sacrifice to the god the bigger the return from Baal, the fertility god. Phoenicians work closely with the Hebrews. They are important for their trade their colonies and because they serve as carriers between Palenstine, Egypt, Asian minor, Greece (carrying goods, concepts, and western civilization). Eventually carry trade for the Egyptians. Carthage did not get away from sacrificing their young and other things.


Egyptians were a hydraulic society. Bailed water out of the Nile. Egyptians mixed with so many different people, it's hard to determine where they come from. Around 5000 BC people settled along the Nile River Valley. The Lower and Upper Kingdom of the Nile were established. They are bearing their dead in graves that contain tools, weapons, etc. Buried in the sand and desert. About 4300BC the two kingdoms unite together. The wealth and lifeblood of the kingdom is grain. They were isolated and were not getting attacked. Surrounded by desert and sea in Egypt. Over thousands of years develop their own society, a calendar based along the moon, covered fields with water, the sprouting, and the harvest of crops (4236BC). Developed a writing style based around symbols, eventually developed into hieroglyphics (600 phonetic pictures). Hieroglyphics were the writing for the nobility, priest, religion. Commoners used script form of writing called demotic. Women could hold fairly high positions. Came up with a way to keep track of writing on an early form of paper called papyrus and also developed fairly durable ink. We divide the history of Egypt into four periods: Old Kingdom 3400-2400BC, Middle Kingdom (Feudal) 2400-1280BC, Hyksos Invandero 1780-1550BC, New Kingdom 1550-600BC. Imhoptep was the royal architecture for King Zolzar. It is the oldest form of masery that still standing. Pyramids were built for tombs. The capitol of the old kingdom was Memphis. Taxes were paid in grain. There are still sixty miles of pyramids in Memphis. Religion of the Egyptian: Principle god will be represented by the Sun called Ra. The goddess

of the Nile was Isis. The two most important things to them. Isis marries Osiris. Seth is the jealous brother and kidnaps their sun Horis. Osiris goes after Seth and is killed by Seth. Seth cuts up the body, takes out the organs and tries to hide his terrible deed. Isis figures it out and puts Osiris' body back together and Seth is abandoned to the desert. Osiris could only spend part of the time with her and the rest in the kingdom of the dead. This is where we get the change in season. Around this grows the ritual of mummification and the concept of what happens to ones body after death. The Ka, Ba, Ikh are the three parts of the body. Ka-Always stays with the body. Ba- Makes the journey to the next world. Ikh- The part that lives through the next world. They also worshiped characteristics of animals. The priest carry out the mummification. They become the first medical doctors and discovered cancer (crab). The builders of the tomb were highly paid workers who knew how important their work was. The use of the resin covered linen turned the bodies black. Mummy is a Persian word. When Persian conquered Egypt they found the black bodies and named them after tar. They specialized in working with copper. Known for vases (Egyptians). They like the Sumetic people. The Book of the Dead were the first writings to be led by the living during funerals and placed into the tombs. They had banquet songs. Toward the end of the old kingdom we start to see stories with morals and teachings of right and wrong. Maat- the universe in harmony and balance (represented with a goddess

holding out her hand). Old Kingdom starts to have problems and is dominated by a King causes problems. The nobility of Egypt rises up and gets tired of paying taxes and rises up against the King of Egypt. The power is now in the hands of a group of people (the nobles of Egypt). They named who could be King. Egypt continues to expand during this period to the second set of rapids of the Nile River, advance into Palenstine, construct a canal. Explored the Mediterranean

and the Red Sea. In 1780BC were invaded by the Hyksos. Hyksos had horses and found Egypt divided, which made it easier. The settled into the palaces and took on the culture. Eventually Egyptians rise up and kick them out, by ruler of Thebes. Thebes becomes the capitol of the New Kingdom of Egypt and is a huge monumental city with palaces and temples. Continue to expand down the Nile and intermarry in Ethiopia. Move into Palenstine against the Hitites. Build a temple of Karnak (largest temple ever constructed around Thebes. Build huge Abolas. Armies consisted of archers and masses of chariots and also develop a new religion. About 1375BC, Arkhenaman comes to the throne. The God of Thebes was Amon. Akhenaman does not like the religion. He is married to Neffertiti. Akhenaman creates a new religion and gives his god the name Aton (sun). Is the god of the world. Builds temples across the river of Thebes and is upsetting the priest, but having a difficult time getting his religion across. Worried that it may not continue, young successor named Tutenkhaten goes back to the old religion. Old religion comes back, but the influence of the other religion comes to the Hebrews. Another great ruler was Ramses II. Greatest ruler of the new kingdom and the longest ruler. Fought war against the Hitite. Lived until 92 and was the greatest builder of the New Kingdom. Around 600BC ceases to be a great nation and never has recovered and is conquered by group after group. New group of conquerors called Indoeuropians around Russia. Settle most of Europe. Indoeuropians are a related people. Come out of Russia. Attack in the Sumetic part of the world and Egypt. They have horses. Create huge and mobile nations. Have a common language and characteristics. Hitites Develop a single nation after a while. They have iron. Adopt a Sumetic pictograph style of writing. Become a very advanced moralistic society and outlaw capital punishment. They are well-known for carving monumental writing on the sides of walls. Sky and Earth are based gods. Fight wars with the Egyptians. Another Indoeuropians group was called the Arryan. Good thoughts and good deeds based religion. Did not worship fire, but had a ceremonial fire burning during worship. The Arryan tribe splits into Iran and Northern India. The Iran group break into the Medes and the Persians, and were related and shared a religion based around the fire kindlers. Religions are brought together by a priest named Zoraster and bases his religion on the struggle of good men vs. evil men. Ahermazda was the god of Good. Acroman was god of evil. Zoraster preached that you had the choice to be good or evil and when you died you went to join and serve that god. He said that the world was divided in to evil, struggle between good and evil, and then world dominated by good. This heavily influences the Hebrews. The concept of a Final Judgement comes out of Zoraster. Magis is the religion of the Persian empire. Persians are descendents of the Arryans. A Persian named Cyrus brings them together and carries out a successful revolt against the Meade. Cyrus leads his army to the Mediterranean. Cyrus gains allies and uses people to turn against other nations after conquering Lydia. Cyrus is killed, but succeeded by his son. Son dies by disease while fighting. Cyrus' grandson Darius takes the slack and expands the empire and then dies, but not without putting together the largest Persian Empire held together by the army, political system, and religion. The army was new to warfare. Persians went away from heavy armor and were designed to move quickly and work on the flanks. Army was ten men to a squad a hundred to a battalion and thousand to a regiment. Phoenicians made up their navy. 14,000 men were called the immortals. Satrapy were

Built roads throughout the empire and had a postal service. Roads helped with trade in the Persian Empire. Persians are the largest empire for over 300 years. Persians are conquered when a newer army invaded. They could not conquer the Greeks. The Greeks come down into Greece. The area will serve as a bridge that connects the old civilization to the Western world. The first civilization grew up around Crete. They were connected to the Hittites. Cnossus is the capitol of Crete. They were sea farers and used their vessels to dominate the mainlands of Greece. Creatian civilization was the first recording of makeup and a bathtub. They were a gifted civilization. They start the mythology of the Greeks. King Minos was the ruler of Crete and his wife had an affair of a holy bull and created a half human half bull son called the Minotar. He placed him under the palace. King Minos had a son who was a tremendous athletes so the Athenians murdered him. So the Athenians are killed and fed to the Minotars. While uncovering the palace people find odd drawings on the wall. They find on the walls people being born by bulls, but other people grabbing the horns of the bulls and flipping over them. They also have a story of Medusa. The Minoaceans dominates the Greeks on the mainland and then something happens to the Minnoceans (wipes out their city). Suddenly Crete is not a dominant power and allows the dominated groups to become more powerful. These people formed the Myceaens, which was the most powerful city/state of the Greek mainland. They don't unite into a single nation, by many. They then establish the Bronze Age Greek civilization. Also known for their attack on the city of Troy.


Video was played about the city of Troy

The Early Greeks:

1570-1100BC Bronze Age

1100-800BC Dark Ages

800-600BC Age of Nobles

600-480BC Ages of Tyrants

480-400BC Golden Age

400-350BC Rise of Thebes

Akayan Greeks: Come down into the Greek Peninsula and form city/states. Also are called the Bronze Age Greeks (attacks Troy). The Dorians will eventually settle in and adopt the culture and civilization of the Greeks that they conquer. They commit and take over an area and merge tribes to form city/states. Ran by a warrior king (has enough money to have armor and weapons). Acropolis- fortified hill. The city or village will grow around the acropolis and is used for protection. Everything is owned by a king who distributes the land. This is known as the Dark Ages because it is dominated by a King and also because we cannot read their writing. What we know from this is known through poems. The early poems are the beginning of Greek literature. They usually relate their gods to nature: Zeus (sky)- rules over the gods and controls the weather. Apollo- given the knowledge of the future. Athena was the goddess of war and would be your protector. Poseidon- god of the sea. And also many other minor gods. They gave the gods human form. They had no early concept of heaven or hell. Everyone, when died went to Hattes. There was a special place for the Greek Kings called the Allegian Fields. The Oracle of Delphi was the center of the world. It was the only temple operated by a priestess called a pithea. You could go to her and ask her a question to get an answer by Apollo. King Crosis (king of Lidea) went to Delphi to see if he should go to war with Persia. The Oracle remains powerful until 390 AD. The worship of gods was a unifying factor of the Greeks. They all worshiped the same set of gods. Their language and methology was other unifying factors. During the Age of Kings Athens is formed. Nobles now ban together and work to become powerful organizations. The Kings start to share power with their nobles, fearing to be overtaken completely. This is now the Period of Nobles. Greeks start to develop their maritime trade and some think piracy also. Their ships were built in the Phoenecian

model. As they developed maritime trade you begin to see a middle class society develop in Greece. They then grow in prosperity and want a voice within the government. In time the councils are forced to accommodate the wealthy middle class. They then import the alphabet from the Phoenecian

s. The Greeks called themselves the Helemes. Culture are Helenistic. During the Age of Nobles the Greeks begin to build temples. Their literature starts to change during the Age of Nobles. They then demand their gods to change their outlook and expect better behavior from their gods. In order to handle a situation the Greek city/states would turn to a single ruler called a tyrant. It would usually be a noble. He would take over the government of the city state to handle a problem, in which afterwards he would return to the council sometimes. City/states would then try to find alternate ways of solving problems. The city/state of Athens tends to handle domestic problems by expanding franchise and giving more rights to the people. Sparta goes the complete opposite way. Athens is made up a number of different tribe in which all demand representation within the councils. Athens has people coming into debt so far that they then start to become slaves. They are concerned about this that there might be a revolt. They appoint a tyrant named Drako. He will deal with the problem of laws in Athens. He will put together a severe code in which a lot of the penalties were death. He did not do much of people going into death. They then turn to Solon. Solon was brought in as a military leader, then kept on to handle some domestic questions. Solon steps in and tries to solve the problem. He limits the amount of land that an individual could hold and then freed individuals that were enslaved by debt, establishes a new constitution, establishes a government based around four assemblies made up of people by their wealth. The wealthy assembly dominates the government, but lets some freedmen have a voice in government. After Solon another military leader named Strolos gained the backing of the middle class society. He placed all the power in his hand and took land away from the Nobles. He tried to entertain them, built theaters, great sporting events, and other construction. He tries to pass power on from him to his son. The people rise us and overthrow him and is replaced by Clistinine. He opens up the government to more people. He breaks up the tribes and merges all the people together and takes away a lot of the status of the wealthy. All freedmen have the right to partake government under him. Women were in a second class position because they don't have a voice. Clistinine makes a council comprised of all free men of the society. This assembly would make laws. He also said that if the people of Athens voted, a person could be ostracized or banished from Athens for ten years. Sparta decides the cut back on rights of other people that they rule over. The Spartans were a minority within their own city/state. So a king named Lycergus develops a constitution for Sparta which basically keeps the power in the hands of the Spartans. The two top Spartan families would have a King (one of the government and one of the military). Below the kings were a council of nobles (cabinet). Below the cabinet thirty nobles. The population of Sparta was divided into three parts: The Spartans, the free non-Spartans, and then the slaves. Only the Spartans could participate in government. Spartans did not want to involve themselves with business. Spartans only married Spartans and place everything into the military and foreign affairs. They operated farms run by the Spartans or the wives. They were always paranoid about revolt. War dominated Spartan thinking. They were seven elite regiments of Speerman. Iron helmets, oval sheath of wood and bronze straps, had a double edged sword, and everything revolved around the military. At the age of seven the males were assigned to a Spartan soldier in the barracks. You would stay in the barracks until the age of thirty when you were allowed to marry. Spartans decline in number. They commit race suicide. During the Age of Tyrants nobles led in social affairs and were prominent figures. The Olympic games started (776BC). Sprints, horse races, chariot races, boxing, free fraul, couldn't bite or strangle. Happened every four years. Winners would receive an olive branch. The best athletes were their best soldiers. Move to specialized training and if you were a good athlete you would subsidize your athletes. Olympics were conducted nude. Women were not allowed to see them so the audience had to be in the nude. A statue of Zeus was paid for by athlete fines for cheating. Theodocious shuts down the Olympics. Music begins. Pendar of Thebes (poet). Saffold was also a poet. We begin to see Greek plays. Architecture reaches a new height. They begin building their temples out of limestone. Greek literature changes and the view of Hattes. Now everyone goes to the Allegian Fields. Hattes become the place where evil people go. The Greeks begin to go out and explore their world. The Greeks that advance the most are called Ionians. Ionians come from the coast of Asia Minor. The high number of scientist of Ionians are in the perfect spot to get the knowledge of all the different communities. They knew that the Earth revolved around the sun. They develop a theory of evolution. They knew the Earth was round and produced great mathematicians. They studied fossils. They Age of Tyrants was a great advance of government and Greek Literature and Natural Science. In times of crisis they would turn to tyrants to help them fight against a foreign enemy called the Pursians.


The Greeks are not a unified nation and cannot project the strength of the Persians, but they do cause problems along the coast of Asia Minor called Ionia. The Ionians are dominated by the Persians. The Greeks in the mainland encourage rebellion against the Persians. Persians get tired and one of the Persian leaders, Darius sends a military force over to teach them a lesson. The plan was to land troops on the Eastern side of Athens state and then the army would march to Athens and the Persian navy harasses Athens from the sea. The Greeks have a equal amount of troops to match the Persian forces. The Persians rely on archers and are lightly armored. They wear down their attackers by waves of arrows. The Greeks are in to close to hand to hand combat. The Greeks advance towards the Persians. The Greeks win and march back to Athens to help guard the city. The Persian navy runs away. This is embarrassing for the Persians. Darius is outraged, but dies before he can send a large expedition after the Greeks. The Persians plan to come back. A greek hero Themestaclese is named a tyrant of Athens and has to prepare Athens for an attack from the Persian. The Athenians discover money and put it into a Navy and build ships. The Athenians build more and more of these streamline, specialized war ships designed to ram the enemy and destroy their vessels. The numbers are extremely against them. In 480BC the Persians are ready to advance by commander Xerxes. One half of their army was called out, twice as many men that the Greeks can supply. The Greeks unite to fight the Persians. At Thermopoly the Greeks are able to slow the Persians down. The immortals sweep around through the Greek lines and the Greeks fall back so that the whole army is not trapped. With Thermopoly taken the Greeks abandon Athens. Xerxes comes into Athens and sets up in the Acropolis. The Greeks only have about 300 vessels, but because of the location of the island the Persians land troops on the island, Salamis. The Greeks ram the boats of the Persians from the side. Over half the Persians ships will be lost and the Greeks win the Navy battle. Xerxes is forced to retreat all the way back to his empire. He pulls the majority of his army out back out of Greece. The war has caused rivalry within Greece. Themestaclese predicted that Athenians would have to fight the Spartans. Initially after the defeat of the Persians there was the Golden Age of Greece. The Athenians return back to their city. They rebuild their city and open up their government to the free people of Athens. Positions were open to anyone and they get the closest sign of true democracy that the world has ever seen. Parapleze put the soldiers and the rowers of the Navy on government pay. The ships were called triing diplomacy, where they would sent their Navy out to put pressure on other city/states to be like them government wise. This eventually leads to a huge series of war. This is the time of the plays, festivals, war, Pelloponesian wars. When the Athenians come back to Athens they rebuild. This is what is in Athens today. There are great advances in literature and art. The time of the first known historians. Therototis, wrote about events of his lifetime. Thecititees was a general that didn't obey orders and was removed from command. He is very objective. This is also the era of the Sophus. They were great thinkers, tutors, educators that discussed and talked architecture, government, etc. Socrates was the father of the Sophus and the son of a stone cutter. An ugly individual dressed in ill-fitted clothes. He taught a Socratarian style (would ask you questions and have you answer them). He had no desire for office or political career. He believed that the state was made up of citizens, but to have a good government we had to educate people to be good. He had a group of pupils, the most famous being Socrates. Socrates was accused of treason for undermining the state. They wanted him to banish himself, but he appeared at his court and represented himself and was sentenced to death. He teaches his classes and commits suicide in front of them. Plado is upset about Socrates and leaves Athens and then returns and sets up a school. Plado believed that the reason that Athens was corrupted was because it was a democracy full of ignorant people. Plado believed education was the most important aspect of a individual's life and that only the educated should rule. He wants his state to have no attachment to other states. People argued that a state can no longer isolate itself from its neighbors. In the midst the Pelloponesian wars (three of them). They tend to break down into wars from Athens and their allies and Spartans allies, the Pelloponesian league. It started out as Athens trying the dominate Greece and Sparta trying to stop them. Themestoclese rebuilds the city of Athens and construct fortification from Athens stretching down to their sea ports (10miles). He did this because he knew that the Athenians could not match the Spartans. He knew that he could move the entire population behind these protective walls. Sparta was supreme on land and Athens at sea. Paraplese improves these long walls and the Navy. War breaks out in 435BC. This war last for thirty years. The Athenians pulls their population into Athens and disease breaks out and Paraplese dies of disease. Persia is having a great time. Eventually peace will be made again and Athens made to surrender. Athens is forced to destroy its large walls and turn its fleet over to Sparta. Sparta got cocky and invaded Persia. They got beat. Both Sparta and Athens were worn out and weak and in the end a different city/state wins out, Thebes. The Thebians were using good mercenaries in their army from Macedon. The Macedonians learned from the wars. The leader Phillip II of Macedon reworks and rebuilds his military into the finest fighting machines in the world. It was a patriotic army and national and very loyal to the king. They use scientific design for weapons and research. They hold their own for the next 1800 years. Macedonian Phalynx (fighting style). What made them so effective because they were the first army in the large scale to change fronts in the midst of a battle. The light infantry were the cream of the army. The struck at any openings in the enemy lines by the companions or elite calvary led by the king. The companions are always in the forefronts. They strike at the enemy lines. The companions horse was also armored. They were the first to use communications. The Macedonians had field hospitals. Phillip uses his army to conquer Greece. He is murdered at a wedding reception. Her son was Alexander and becomes Alexander the III of Macedon. Comes to the thrown at the age of 20. Becomes known as Alexander the Great. He was arrogant, vindictive, enslaved whole populations, but generous, unified populations, and other good things. He was brought up by his mother who continually told him that his father was not Phillip. His tutor was Aristotle. Aristotle was a student of Plado. From Alexander we learned about science. When he came to the throne, Greek rebels. Alexander leads his father's army down into Greece and conquers it and then federates the rest of the people into his army. He leads all of these people to march and conquer Persia. Meets Persian army at Isis. Persian army is an old army and hasn't kept up with technology. He crushes the Persian army and captures the Persian. Persian emporer wants to make peace. Alexander was offered the Persian emporers daughter in marriage. He then headed south down along the Palenstine coast to capture the Phoenecian

s. The city of Tyre resists. Alexander builds a bridge out to Tyre and captures it within seven months. The city of Gaza then resists, so he had his engineers build a hill to fire into the city. Then goes into Egypt and they surrender. Establishes the city of Alexandria. While there, he makes a journey into the desert and is recognized by the Egyptian priest to be a god. Alexander marches to Mesopotamia and meets the rest of the Persian army and Rubella. Persian army is huge and outnumbers Alexander. Alexander leads the army into the Persian lines and defeats them. The Persian enemy flees and Alexander moves to Babylon and then Persopolis and burns Persopolis. After conquering the Persian empire and then continues on and conquers Afghanistan. He was successful at building supply lines and resisting guerilla warfare attacks. He helps spread Greek culture throughout this region. He becomes confident in being a god. Dressed in purple robes. He ordered cities in Greece to build temples to him. His actions costs him the friendship of fellow soldiers who were executed by Alexander. He goes back to Babylon and dies after his army refuses to go on and fight. At his death, his empire is split into three parts. Alexander has unified all of the known western world. He laid the foundation for everything else to come. The empires that come after him build upon what he has done. The Christian, Roman, and Islamic empires all come from the Hellenistic culture. Business and trade are booming, people can travel, Greek philosophy continues, their literature continues, their language and everything comes from Alexander's empire.